Abstract

We report on lateral pin germanium photodetectors selectively grown at the end of silicon waveguides. A very high optical bandwidth, estimated up to 120GHz, was evidenced in 10 µm long Ge photodetectors using three kinds of experimental set-ups. In addition, a responsivity of 0.8 A/W at 1550 nm was measured. An open eye diagrams at 40Gb/s were demonstrated under zero-bias at a wavelength of 1.55 µm.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. B. Ben Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10317–10325 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-W. Chen, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Forty Gb/s hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with low chirp,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1455–1460 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolahdouz, L. Maresca, R. Ghandi, A. Khatibi, and H. H. Radamson, “Kinetic Model of SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth using RPCVD Technique,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), H457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chen, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Forty Gb/s hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with low chirp,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ben Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10317–10325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 055002–055005 (2009).

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2005

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Abbadie, A.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 055002–055005 (2009).

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arguirov, T.

Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aroca, R. A.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Augendre, E.

Baeyens, Y.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. P.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ben Bakir, B.

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Billon, T.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanpain, B.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bordel, D.

Bowers, J. E.

Buhl, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caymax, M.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cherkashin, N.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 055002–055005 (2009).

Chetrit, Y.

Clavelier, L.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 055002–055005 (2009).

Cohen, R.

Crozat, P.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Descos, A.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Fournier, M.

Fulbert, L.

Gardes, F. Y.

Ghandi, R.

M. Kolahdouz, L. Maresca, R. Ghandi, A. Khatibi, and H. H. Radamson, “Kinetic Model of SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth using RPCVD Technique,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), H457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grampeix, H.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 055002–055005 (2009).

Grosse, P.

Halbwax, M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 055002–055005 (2009).

Hartmann, J.-M.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heyns, M. M.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holliger, P.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Ishikawa, Y.

Itabashi, S.

Itabashi, S.-I.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khatibi, A.

M. Kolahdouz, L. Maresca, R. Ghandi, A. Khatibi, and H. H. Radamson, “Kinetic Model of SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth using RPCVD Technique,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), H457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kittler, M.

Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolahdouz, M.

M. Kolahdouz, L. Maresca, R. Ghandi, A. Khatibi, and H. H. Radamson, “Kinetic Model of SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth using RPCVD Technique,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), H457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, S.

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Loo, R.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Lupu, A.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maine, S.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maresca, L.

M. Kolahdouz, L. Maresca, R. Ghandi, A. Khatibi, and H. H. Radamson, “Kinetic Model of SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth using RPCVD Technique,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), H457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G.

Michel, J.

Morse, M. M.

Nishi, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehme, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, N.

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Papon, A. M.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, J. D.

Qian, W.

Radamson, H. H.

M. Kolahdouz, L. Maresca, R. Ghandi, A. Khatibi, and H. H. Radamson, “Kinetic Model of SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth using RPCVD Technique,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), H457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rai, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Rivallin, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, G.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rouvière, M.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Sarid, G.

Shafiiha, R.

Shinojima, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoen, E.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Souriau, L.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Thomson, D. J.

Tillack, B.

Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

Wang, G.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wohl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yin, T.

Zaumseil, P.

Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Select. Top.Quantum Electron 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-µm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, J. P. Barnes, J. M. Fédéli, T. Billon, and L. Vivien, “Impact of the H2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(4), 532–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

M. Kolahdouz, L. Maresca, R. Ghandi, A. Khatibi, and H. H. Radamson, “Kinetic Model of SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth using RPCVD Technique,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), H457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Forty Gb/s hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with low chirp,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ben Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10317–10325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent Progress in High-Speed Silicon-Based Optical Modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, N. Cherkashin, H. Grampeix, and L. Clavelier, “Epitaxial growth of Ge thick layers on nominal and 6° off Si(001); Ge surface passivation by Si,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 055002–055005 (2009).

Sensors (Basel Switzerland)

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron.

Y. Yamamoto, P. Zaumseil, T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, and B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation density Ge deposited on Si (1 0 0) using RPCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 60(1), 2–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3D tapping mode Atomic Force Microscopy images of 10 µm x 10 µm, initially ~150 nm deep recess in bulk Si(001) surrounded by ~700 nm of SiO2 (which acts as a hard mask; overall cavity depth close to 850 nm), this at various stages of their filling with Ge using a {400°C, 100 Torr / 750°C, 20 Torr} process. Growth durations at those two temperatures are provided next to each image. Ge growth rates are ~45 nm min.−1 at 400°C and 260 nm min.−1 at 750°C. Poly-Ge nuclei on the SiO2 hard mask are clearly seen in the top right optical microscopy image of a 10 µm x 10 µm cavity at the end of an optical waveguide after its overfilling with Ge. For the right two images, a 1 hour H2 annealing at 750°C, 20 Torr was used after growth, as in actual photo-detectors. (b) <110> sections obtained from AFM images showing the flatness of the Ge layers grown at 400°C together with the appearance of <113> and high Miller indexes ({1110} etc) facets as soon as growth proceeds at 750°C. When Ge overflows from the cavity, {111} steeper facets are then present at the very edges of the resulting “hut-like” structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic view of a lateral pin Ge photodetector integrated at the end of a Si waveguide. The length was 10 µm. (b) Top-view Optical Microscopy and cross-sectional SEM images of the Ge PD. (c) SEM cross-section (perpendicular to the waveguide direction).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Responsivity versus reverse bias voltage for the 10µm long lateral pin Ge photodetector integrated at the end of a Si waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized optical responses as a function of frequency under −2V bias at the wavelength of 1.55µm. The photodetector length was 10 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams at 10Gbit/s, 20Gbit/s, 30Gbit/s and 40Gbit/s under zero-bias and −1V.

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