Abstract

We have investigated the feasibility of multimode polysilicon waveguides to demonstrate the suitability of polysilicon as a candidate for multilayer photonic applications. Solid Phase Crystallization (SPC) with a maximum temperature of 1000°C is used to create polysilicon on thermally grown SiO2. We then measure the propagation losses for various waveguide widths on both polysilicon and crystalline silicon platforms. We find that as the width increases for polysilicon waveguides, the propagation loss decreases similar to crystalline silicon waveguides. At a waveguide width of 10µm, polysilicon and crystalline silicon waveguides have propagation losses of 0.56dB/cm and 0.31 dB/cm, respectively, indicating there is little bulk absorption from the polysilicon and is the lowest propagation loss for polysilicon demonstrated to date. In addition, the first 1x12 polysilicon MMI is demonstrated with a low insertion loss of −1.29dB and a high uniformity of 1.07dB. These results vindicate the use of polysilicon waveguides of varying widths in photonic integrated circuits.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express19(18), 17758–17765 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. W. Holzwarth, J. S. Orcutt, H. Li, M. A. Popovic, V. Stojanovic, J. L. Hoyt, R. J. Ram, and H. I. Smith, “Localized substrate removal technique enabling strong-confinement microphotonics in bulk Si CMOS processes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThKK5.
  3. J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071120 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kamins, Polycrystalline Silicon for Integrated Circuits and Displays 2nd ed. (Kluwer, 1998).
  7. S. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Propagation losses in undoped and n-doped polycrystalline silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express17(23), 20891–20899 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low loss (approximately 6.45dB/cm) sub-micron polycrystalline silicon waveguide integrated with efficient SiON waveguide coupler,” Opt. Express16(9), 6425–6432 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Preston, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Polysilicon photonic resonators for large-scale 3D integration of optical networks,” Opt. Express15(25), 17283–17290 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(7), 5118–5124 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Orcutt, S. D. Tang, S. Kramer, K. Mehta, H. Li, V. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process,” Opt. Express20(7), 7243–7254 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express14(2), 664–669 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. K. Hatalis and D. W. Greve, “Large grain polycrystalline silicon by low-temperature annealing of low-pressure chemical vapor deposited amorphous silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys.63(7), 2260–2266 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Ibok and S. Garg, “A characterization of the effect of deposition temperature on polysilicon properties,” J. Electrochem. Soc.140(10), 2927 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).
  19. D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express19(18), 17758–17765 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

2000 (1)

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Ibok and S. Garg, “A characterization of the effect of deposition temperature on polysilicon properties,” J. Electrochem. Soc.140(10), 2927 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. K. Hatalis and D. W. Greve, “Large grain polycrystalline silicon by low-temperature annealing of low-pressure chemical vapor deposited amorphous silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys.63(7), 2260–2266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, T.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arai, S.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atsumi, Y.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Barnett, B. C.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Beckx, S.

Block, B. A.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadien, K.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Chen, R. T.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Fang, Q.

Garg, S.

E. Ibok and S. Garg, “A characterization of the effect of deposition temperature on polysilicon properties,” J. Electrochem. Soc.140(10), 2927 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Greve, D. W.

M. K. Hatalis and D. W. Greve, “Large grain polycrystalline silicon by low-temperature annealing of low-pressure chemical vapor deposited amorphous silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys.63(7), 2260–2266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hatalis, M. K.

M. K. Hatalis and D. W. Greve, “Large grain polycrystalline silicon by low-temperature annealing of low-pressure chemical vapor deposited amorphous silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys.63(7), 2260–2266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ibok, E.

E. Ibok and S. Garg, “A characterization of the effect of deposition temperature on polysilicon properties,” J. Electrochem. Soc.140(10), 2927 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

Kang, J.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobrinsky, M. J.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Kramer, S.

Kwong, D.

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Kwong, D. N.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

List, S.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Liu, Y.

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Manipatruni, S.

McNab, S.

Mehta, K.

Mohammed, E.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Nishiyama, N.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J. S.

Poitras, C. B.

Preston, K.

Ram, R. J.

Reshotko, M.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Robertson, F.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Schaekers, M.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Song, J. F.

Stojanovic, V.

Subbaraman, H.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Tang, S. D.

Tao, S. H.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y.

Wouters, J.

Xu, X.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Young, I.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Yu, M. B.

Zhang, Y.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

Zhu, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46(18), 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “1xN multimode interference beam splitter design techniques for on-chip optical interconnections,” IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron.17(3), 510–515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ITJ (1)

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” ITJ8, 129–142 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. K. Hatalis and D. W. Greve, “Large grain polycrystalline silicon by low-temperature annealing of low-pressure chemical vapor deposited amorphous silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys.63(7), 2260–2266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

E. Ibok and S. Garg, “A characterization of the effect of deposition temperature on polysilicon properties,” J. Electrochem. Soc.140(10), 2927 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express19(18), 17758–17765 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Propagation losses in undoped and n-doped polycrystalline silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express17(23), 20891–20899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low loss (approximately 6.45dB/cm) sub-micron polycrystalline silicon waveguide integrated with efficient SiON waveguide coupler,” Opt. Express16(9), 6425–6432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Preston, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Polysilicon photonic resonators for large-scale 3D integration of optical networks,” Opt. Express15(25), 17283–17290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(7), 5118–5124 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Orcutt, S. D. Tang, S. Kramer, K. Mehta, H. Li, V. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process,” Opt. Express20(7), 7243–7254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

T. Kamins, Polycrystalline Silicon for Integrated Circuits and Displays 2nd ed. (Kluwer, 1998).

C. W. Holzwarth, J. S. Orcutt, H. Li, M. A. Popovic, V. Stojanovic, J. L. Hoyt, R. J. Ram, and H. I. Smith, “Localized substrate removal technique enabling strong-confinement microphotonics in bulk Si CMOS processes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThKK5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Beam Propagation Method simulation of 10µm waveguide for (a) crystalline silicon and (b) polysilicon with grain boundaries.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of waveguide structure. Not drawn to scale. (b) Schematic of 1x12 polysilicon MMI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top down SEM image of polysilicon grains after oxidation and BOE, (b) cross sectional SEM of a single mode polysilicon waveguide and (c) microscope image of the completed 1x12 MMI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Propagation loss of various polysilicon and crystalline silicon waveguide widths. Inset shows a close up view of 0.4µm to 1 µm. Standard error bars are given for each data measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) IR image of the 12 output spots from 1x12 MMI fanout. (b) Output intensities of the 1x12 polysilicon MMI.

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