Abstract

This paper presents a real-time, coherent optical OFDM transmitter based on a field programmable gate array implementation. The transmitter uses 16QAM mapping and runs at 28 GSa/s achieving a data rate of 85.4 Gb/s on a single polarization. A cyclic prefix of 25% of the symbol duration is added enabling dispersion-tolerant transmission over up to 400 km of SSMF. This is the first transmission experiment performed with a real-time OFDM transmitter running at data rates higher than 40 Gb/s. A key aspect of the paper is the introduction of a novel method for OFDM symbol synchronization without relying on training symbols. Unlike conventional preamble-based synchronization methods which perform cross-correlations at regular time intervals and let the system run freely in between, the proposed method performs synchronization in a continuous manner ensuring correct symbol alignment at all times.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express16(2), 841–859 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 384–398 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, J. Groenewald, and J. M. Tang, “First real-time experimental demonstrations of 11.25Gb/s Optical OFDMA PONs with adaptive dynamic bandwidth allocation,” Opt. Express19(21), 20557–20570 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Benlachtar, R. Bouziane, R. I. Killey, C. R. Berger, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, and M. Glick, “Optical OFDM for the data center,” in Proc. of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (2010).
  5. Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Inan, S. Adhikari, O. Karakaya, P. Kainzmaier, M. Mocker, H. von Kirchbauer, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “Real-time 93.8-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OFDM transmitter with 1024-point IFFT,” Opt. Express19(26), B64–B68 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 494–501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Schmogrow, R. Bouziane, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, R. Killey, Y. Benlachtar, P. Watts, P. Bayvel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “85.4 Gbit/s Real-Time OFDM Signal Generation with Transmission over 400 km and Preamble-less Reception,” in Proc. of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012).
  10. Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. A. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer Generation of Hardware for Linear Digital Signal Processing Transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 15 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. UG198 Virtex-5 FPGA RocketIO GTX Transceiver User Guide (2009), Xilinx Inc., Available from: www.xilinx.com .
  14. S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall USA, 2002).
  15. R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 384–398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer Generation of Hardware for Linear Digital Signal Processing Transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 15 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s Sub-Banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 494–501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

Adhikari, S.

Bao, H.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Ezra, S.

Benlachtar, Y.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouziane, R.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartolano, A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, Y.

Cvijetic, N.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franchetti, F.

P. A. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer Generation of Hardware for Linear Digital Signal Processing Transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 15 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giddings, R. P.

Glick, M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groenewald, J.

Hanik, N.

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoe, J. C.

P. A. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer Generation of Hardware for Linear Digital Signal Processing Transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 15 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hugues-Salas, E.

Inan, B.

Jansen, S. L.

Jin, X. Q.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kainzmaier, P.

Kaneda, N.

Karakaya, O.

Killey, R. I.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koutsoyannis, R.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milder, P.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milder, P. A.

P. A. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer Generation of Hardware for Linear Digital Signal Processing Transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 15 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mocker, M.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Püschel, M.

P. A. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer Generation of Hardware for Linear Digital Signal Processing Transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 15 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rangaraj, D.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Tang, J. M.

Tang, Y.

von Kirchbauer, H.

Watts, P. M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, J. L.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.

P. A. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer Generation of Hardware for Linear Digital Signal Processing Transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 15 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-time digital signal processing for the generation of optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexed signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

R. Schmogrow, R. Bouziane, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, R. Killey, Y. Benlachtar, P. Watts, P. Bayvel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “85.4 Gbit/s Real-Time OFDM Signal Generation with Transmission over 400 km and Preamble-less Reception,” in Proc. of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2012).

Y. Benlachtar, R. Bouziane, R. I. Killey, C. R. Berger, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, and M. Glick, “Optical OFDM for the data center,” in Proc. of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (2010).

UG198 Virtex-5 FPGA RocketIO GTX Transceiver User Guide (2009), Xilinx Inc., Available from: www.xilinx.com .

S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall USA, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: an FPGA based real-time Tx with optical I/Q-modulator and external cavity laser (ECL). The amplified signal was sent through a recirculating loop comprising two 50 km spans of SSMF with an EDFA. A DFB laser was used as a holding beam in the loop. A trigger source defined the number of roundtrips by controlling optical switches and the optical modulation analyzer (OMA) used to receive the signal. A second ECL served as a local oscillator. Data were processed on an external PC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Real-time FPGA processing blocks of transmitter comprising PRBS generation, 16QAM mapping, an IFFT, clipping and scaling, and cyclic prefix insertion. (b) The receiver offline processing blocks comprise resampling, FIR filtering, frequency offset compensation, cyclic prefix removal, an FFT, window synchronization, equalization (Equ.), and decoding of the data. The signal quality is evaluated through EVM measurements [15].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic design of the FFT window synchronization module and experimental results. (a) The OFDM stream is windowed at different starting positions ϕl. An FFT extracts the modulation coefficients Ck for each window. (b) Coefficients obtained from each window are vertically aligned and the standard deviation σ(|Ck|) is computed. The optimum window position is found for the minimum mean value 〈σ(|Ck|)〉k of the standard deviation σ(|Ck|) of subsequently received random modulation coefficients Ck in subcarrier k, averaged over all subcarriers. (c) Output of the window synchronization module in a back-to-back measurement. The flat bottom of the “trough” is due to the phase tolerance introduced by the cyclic prefix.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results. (a) Measured and ensemble-averaged spectrum. Four pilot tones broadened by the CP are seen. (b) Signal quality, expressed by EVM [15] for different subcarrier positions k in a back-to-back measurement. (c) Constellation diagram of subcarrier k = 5 and back-to-back configuration. (d) Average EVM for all subcarriers after the transmission distance. Values of EVM corresponding to BER of 10−3 and 10−2 are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output of the synchronization module (a) in the back-to-back configuration and (b) after 400 km transmission.

Metrics