Abstract

The particulate optical backscattering coefficient (bbp) is a fundamental optical property that allows monitoring of marine suspended particles both in situ and from space. Backscattering measurements in the open ocean are still scarce, however, especially in oligotrophic regions. Consequently, uncertainties remain in bbp parameterizations as well as in satellite estimates of bbp. In an effort to reduce these uncertainties, we present and analyze a dataset collected in surface waters during the 19th Atlantic Meridional Transect. Results show that the relationship between particulate beam-attenuation coefficient (cp) and chlorophyll-a concentration was consistent with published bio-optical models. In contrast, the particulate backscattering per unit of chlorophyll-a and per unit of cp were higher than in previous studies employing the same sampling methodology. These anomalies could be due to a bias smaller than the current uncertainties in bbp. If that was the case, then the AMT19 dataset would confirm that bbp:cp is remarkably constant over the surface open ocean. A second-order decoupling between bbp and cp was, however, evident in the spectral slopes of these coefficients, as well as during diel cycles. Overall, these results emphasize the current difficulties in obtaining accurate bbp measurements in the oligotrophic ocean and suggest that, to first order, bbp and cp are coupled in the surface open ocean, but they are also affected by other geographical and temporal variations.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

R. Astoreca, D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, V. Rousseau, and C. Lancelot, “Influence of suspended particle concentration, composition and size on the variability of inherent optical properties of the southern North Sea,” Cont. Shelf Res.35, 117–128 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

Y. P. Shao, K. H. Wyrwoll, A. Chappell, J. P. Huang, Z. H. Lin, G. H. McTainsh, M. Mikami, T. Y. Tanaka, X. L. Wang, and S. Yoon, “Dust cycle: An emerging core theme in earth system science,” Aeolian Res.2, 181–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Briggs, M. J. Perry, I. Cetinic, C. Lee, E. D’Asaro, A. M. Gray, and E. Rehm, “High-resolution observations of aggregate flux during a sub-polar north atlantic spring bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I58, 1031–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr.56, 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Nencioli, G. Chang, M. Twardowski, and T. D. Dickey, “Optical characterization of an eddy-induced diatom bloom west of the island of Hawaii,” Biogeosci.7, 151–162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci.7, 3239–3257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, A. J. Poulton, and P. M. Holligan, “Biominerals and the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett.37, L22605– (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” App. Opt.48, 6811–6819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans114, C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hansell, C. A. Carlson, D. J. Repeta, and R. Schlitzer, “Dissolved organic matter in the ocean: A controversy stimulates new insights,” Oceanography22, 202–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: Effect of salinity,” Opt. Express17, 5698–5710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from density fluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express17, 1671–1678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. B. Bishop, “Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump,” Oceanography22, 182–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosci.6, 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western north atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr.53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosci.5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern south Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans (vol 5 pg 171, 2008),” Biogeosci.5, 595–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Oubelkheir and A. Sciandra, “Diel variations in particle stocks in the oligotrophic waters of the Ionian Sea (Mediterranean),” J. Mar. Syst.74, 364–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern south Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in crater lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia574, 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express15, 7019–7031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cy.19, 1–14, doi:(2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep-Sea Res. Part I50, 1537–1549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. L. MacIntyre, T. M. Kana, T. Anning, and R. J. Geider, “Photoacclimation of photosynthesis irradiance response curves and photosynthetic pigments in microalgae and cyanobacteria,” J. Phycol.38, 17–38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A910, 31–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt.40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt.40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt.40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J. C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. H. Santschi, E. Balnois, K. J. Wilkinson, J. W. Zhang, J. Buffle, and L. D. Guo, “Fibrillar polysaccharides in marine macromolecular organic matter as imaged by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 896–908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-and nanoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II43, 891–906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, “Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions,” Limnol. Oceanogr.41, 744–754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr.37, 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A38, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. Stramski and D. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Progr. Oceanogr.28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates - a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res.49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. Koike, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr.34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen, “Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the north Pacific ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part A35, 1151–1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 water),” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

R. J. Geider, “Light and temperature dependence of the carbon to chlorophyll a ratio in microalgae and cyanobacteria: implications for physiology and growth of phytoplankton,” New Phytol.106, 1–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Chlorophyll-specific scattering coefficient of phytoplankton a simplified theoretical approach,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I34, 1093–1106 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y.

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A38, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

A. Morel and Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates - a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res.49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anning, T.

H. L. MacIntyre, T. M. Kana, T. Anning, and R. J. Geider, “Photoacclimation of photosynthesis irradiance response curves and photosynthetic pigments in microalgae and cyanobacteria,” J. Phycol.38, 17–38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr.56, 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Astoreca, R.

R. Astoreca, D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, V. Rousseau, and C. Lancelot, “Influence of suspended particle concentration, composition and size on the variability of inherent optical properties of the southern North Sea,” Cont. Shelf Res.35, 117–128 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern south Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J. C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, A. J. Poulton, and P. M. Holligan, “Biominerals and the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett.37, L22605– (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balnois, E.

P. H. Santschi, E. Balnois, K. J. Wilkinson, J. W. Zhang, J. Buffle, and L. D. Guo, “Fibrillar polysaccharides in marine macromolecular organic matter as imaged by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 896–908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M.

Behrenfeld, M. J.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosci.6, 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cy.19, 1–14, doi:(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep-Sea Res. Part I50, 1537–1549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, J. K. B.

J. K. B. Bishop, “Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump,” Oceanography22, 182–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosci.6, 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western north atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr.53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express15, 7019–7031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cy.19, 1–14, doi:(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep-Sea Res. Part I50, 1537–1549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt.40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt.40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E. S.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in crater lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia574, 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowler, B. C.

W. M. Balch, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, A. J. Poulton, and P. M. Holligan, “Biominerals and the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett.37, L22605– (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt.40, 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A38, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brickley, P.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western north atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr.53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, N.

N. Briggs, M. J. Perry, I. Cetinic, C. Lee, E. D’Asaro, A. M. Gray, and E. Rehm, “High-resolution observations of aggregate flux during a sub-polar north atlantic spring bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I58, 1031–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buffle, J.

P. H. Santschi, E. Balnois, K. J. Wilkinson, J. W. Zhang, J. Buffle, and L. D. Guo, “Fibrillar polysaccharides in marine macromolecular organic matter as imaged by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 896–908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cailliau, C.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J. C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, C. A.

D. A. Hansell, C. A. Carlson, D. J. Repeta, and R. Schlitzer, “Dissolved organic matter in the ocean: A controversy stimulates new insights,” Oceanography22, 202–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cetinic, I.

N. Briggs, M. J. Perry, I. Cetinic, C. Lee, E. D’Asaro, A. M. Gray, and E. Rehm, “High-resolution observations of aggregate flux during a sub-polar north atlantic spring bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I58, 1031–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

F. Nencioli, G. Chang, M. Twardowski, and T. D. Dickey, “Optical characterization of an eddy-induced diatom bloom west of the island of Hawaii,” Biogeosci.7, 151–162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chappell, A.

Y. P. Shao, K. H. Wyrwoll, A. Chappell, J. P. Huang, Z. H. Lin, G. H. McTainsh, M. Mikami, T. Y. Tanaka, X. L. Wang, and S. Yoon, “Dust cycle: An emerging core theme in earth system science,” Aeolian Res.2, 181–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern south Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J. C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in crater lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia574, 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Courties, C.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

D’Asaro, E.

N. Briggs, M. J. Perry, I. Cetinic, C. Lee, E. D’Asaro, A. M. Gray, and E. Rehm, “High-resolution observations of aggregate flux during a sub-polar north atlantic spring bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I58, 1031–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Olmo, G.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express18, 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express17, 1535–1550 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosci.6, 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dana, D. R.

Dickey, T. D.

F. Nencioli, G. Chang, M. Twardowski, and T. D. Dickey, “Optical characterization of an eddy-induced diatom bloom west of the island of Hawaii,” Biogeosci.7, 151–162 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doxaran, D.

R. Astoreca, D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, V. Rousseau, and C. Lancelot, “Influence of suspended particle concentration, composition and size on the variability of inherent optical properties of the southern North Sea,” Cont. Shelf Res.35, 117–128 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drapeau, D. T.

W. M. Balch, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, A. J. Poulton, and P. M. Holligan, “Biominerals and the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett.37, L22605– (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-and nanoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. Part II43, 891–906 (1996).
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Fennel, K.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in crater lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia574, 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G.

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, “Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions,” Limnol. Oceanogr.41, 744–754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern south Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geider, R. J.

H. L. MacIntyre, T. M. Kana, T. Anning, and R. J. Geider, “Photoacclimation of photosynthesis irradiance response curves and photosynthetic pigments in microalgae and cyanobacteria,” J. Phycol.38, 17–38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Geider, “Light and temperature dependence of the carbon to chlorophyll a ratio in microalgae and cyanobacteria: implications for physiology and growth of phytoplankton,” New Phytol.106, 1–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr.56, 955–973 (2011).
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H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

Gray, A. M.

N. Briggs, M. J. Perry, I. Cetinic, C. Lee, E. D’Asaro, A. M. Gray, and E. Rehm, “High-resolution observations of aggregate flux during a sub-polar north atlantic spring bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I58, 1031–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guillocheau, N.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr.56, 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. D.

P. H. Santschi, E. Balnois, K. J. Wilkinson, J. W. Zhang, J. Buffle, and L. D. Guo, “Fibrillar polysaccharides in marine macromolecular organic matter as imaged by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 896–908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansell, D. A.

D. A. Hansell, C. A. Carlson, D. J. Repeta, and R. Schlitzer, “Dissolved organic matter in the ocean: A controversy stimulates new insights,” Oceanography22, 202–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hara, S.

I. Koike, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hardman-Mountford, N.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, M.-X.

Herring, S.

Holligan, P. M.

W. M. Balch, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, A. J. Poulton, and P. M. Holligan, “Biominerals and the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett.37, L22605– (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Huang, J. P.

Y. P. Shao, K. H. Wyrwoll, A. Chappell, J. P. Huang, Z. H. Lin, G. H. McTainsh, M. Mikami, T. Y. Tanaka, X. L. Wang, and S. Yoon, “Dust cycle: An emerging core theme in earth system science,” Aeolian Res.2, 181–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr.34, 1587–1600 (1989).
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Huot, Y.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosci.5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, “Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions,” Limnol. Oceanogr.41, 744–754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, S.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern south Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kana, T. M.

H. L. MacIntyre, T. M. Kana, T. Anning, and R. J. Geider, “Photoacclimation of photosynthesis irradiance response curves and photosynthetic pigments in microalgae and cyanobacteria,” J. Phycol.38, 17–38 (2002).
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Kiefer, D.

D. Stramski and D. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Progr. Oceanogr.28, 343–383 (1991).
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Kiefer, D. A.

H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen, “Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the north Pacific ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part A35, 1151–1171 (1988).
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Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr.37, 1680–1690 (1992).
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H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen, “Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the north Pacific ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part A35, 1151–1171 (1988).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII2258, S. Ackelson, ed. (SPIE, 1994), 44–55.

Kogure, K.

I. Koike, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koike, I.

I. Koike, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, T.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr.56, 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, T. S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci.7, 3239–3257 (2010).
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T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans114, C09015 (2009).
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Lancelot, C.

R. Astoreca, D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, V. Rousseau, and C. Lancelot, “Influence of suspended particle concentration, composition and size on the variability of inherent optical properties of the southern North Sea,” Cont. Shelf Res.35, 117–128 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Langner, M. R.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.27, 1733–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Larson, G.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in crater lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia574, 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

N. Briggs, M. J. Perry, I. Cetinic, C. Lee, E. D’Asaro, A. M. Gray, and E. Rehm, “High-resolution observations of aggregate flux during a sub-polar north atlantic spring bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I58, 1031–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern south Pacific and eastern Atlantic oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. H.

Y. P. Shao, K. H. Wyrwoll, A. Chappell, J. P. Huang, Z. H. Lin, G. H. McTainsh, M. Mikami, T. Y. Tanaka, X. L. Wang, and S. Yoon, “Dust cycle: An emerging core theme in earth system science,” Aeolian Res.2, 181–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lofftus, K.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr.34, 1587–1600 (1989).
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J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” App. Opt.48, 6811–6819 (2009).
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Global Biogeochem. Cy. (1)

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Hydrobiologia (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locations of CTD casts during AMT19 indicating the cruise track. Background colors represent the bathimetry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between Chl estimated from the AC9 and ACs instruments and HPLC derived TChl. The dashed line is the 1:1 line. N = 109. δr and σr are robust estimates of relative bias (median of the relative residuals) and precision (σ68 of the relative residuals), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between bbp measurements collected at two different wavelengths by the instruments mounted on the flow-through and profiling systems. Error bars represent the combined uncertainties in the bbp estimates. Dashed lines are the 1:1 lines. Note the logarithmic scales on all axes. δ and δr are robust estimates of the absolute and relative bias, respectively. σ and σr are estimates (σ68 of residuals) of the absolute and relative precision, respectively. N = 24.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time series of Chl, bbp(526) and bp(526), sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (from which a constant value of 10 psu was subtracted for plotting purposes, SSS-10, psu) and potential density anomaly (σθ, kg m−3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bivariate histograms showing the relationships between bbp(526) and bp(526) versus Chl. Solid and dashed lines are the models presented in refs. [12] and [10], respectively. The inset presents the bbp(526) vs. Chl bivariate histogram, but in linear scale (bbp is multiplied by 1000). The colorbar identifies the number of data points in each bivariate bin.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time series of bbp:bp at 526 nm, chl-specific bp(526) and bbp(526) ( b p * and b b p *, respectively; m2 mg−1) and the spectral slopes of cp (γcp) and bbp (γbbp).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized frequency distribution of bbp:cp measured during AMT19 (solid line) and of (bbpbb02):cp (dashed line). All measurements are at 526 nm. The shaded area represents the mean value of the normalized frequency distributions of the datasets presented in ref. [8].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time series of (a) bb02 with error bars indicating 95% confidence intervals and (b) bb02:bbp with error bars representing standard errors plotted at discrete locations for clarity. Black dashed and red solid vertical lines indicate times when the flow-through system was cleaned and when the 0.2μm filter was replaced, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Subset of time series showing diel cycles in each variable. Filled circles in the bottom plot are TChl-a estimates from discrete HPLC measurements. Values for γbbp were median filtered (window size of 120 minutes) to remove noise.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scaling factors for the BB349 and BB499 meters. “Final values” are those used to process the data presented in this study. Absolute uncertainties are standard error of the means of the AMT19 determinations. All values, except relative uncertainties, are in units of sr−1 counts−1 × 10−6. Number in parentheses are percent changes from the WetLabs (07/2009) calibration.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Dark counts provided by manufacturer and measured during AMT19. Uncertainties represent half the central 68th percentile of the measurements conducted during AMT19. All units are counts.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Uncertainties used to compute the combined experimental uncertainty of bbp as a function of wavelength. Units of absolute uncertainties are the same as those reported in the text for the corresponding variables.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Uncertainty budget for bbp based on the values presented in Table 3 and on all backscattering measurements collected during the cruise in flow-through mode (BB349). Numbers represent the median values of the squared percent contributions, σ rel 2 (unitless), and the median absolute contributions, σ (m−1), by each input variable to the combined experimental uncertainty in bbp as a function of wavelength.

Equations (4)

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c p ( λ ) = c p ( λ 0 ) ( λ λ 0 ) γ c p
b b p ( λ ) = b b p ( λ 0 ) ( λ λ 0 ) γ b b p
b b p = 2 π χ p [ S ( C D ) β s w ] b b , wall
S ( θ , λ ) = [ β ( θ , λ ) b AC 9 ( λ ) ] [ Q b AC 9 ( λ ) Q b Cstar ( 650 ) ] [ b Cstar ( 650 ) C ( λ ) ]

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