Abstract

This study reveals that the periods, ablation areas and orientations of periodic surface structures (ripples) in fused silica can be adjusted by using designed femtosecond (fs) laser pulse trains to control transient localized electron dynamics and corresponding material properties. By increasing the pulse delays from 0 to 100fs, the ripple periods are changed from ~550nm to ~255nm and the orientation is rotated by 90°. The nearwavelength/subwavelength ripple periods are close to the fundamental/second-harmonic wavelengths in fused silica respectively. The subsequent subpulse of the train significantly impacts free electron distributions generated by the previous subpulse(s), which might influence the formation mechanism of ripples and the surface morphology.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012

2011

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength surface ripples and in-volume nanostructures by fs-laser induced selective etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5641–5646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Shinoda, R. R. Gattass, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of nanometer-width grooves on synthetic single-crystal diamond surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Kim, S. Na, S. Cho, W. Chang, and K. Whang, “Surface ripple changes during Cr film ablation with a double ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Lasers Eng.46(4), 306–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Hommes, M. Miclea, and R. Hergenröder, “Silicon surface morphology study after exposure to tailored femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(20), 7449–7460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Plasma modeling for ultrashort pulse laser ablation of dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Repeatable nanostructures in dielectrics by femtosecond laser pulse trains,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, and K. König, “Sub-100 nm nanostructuring of silicon by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express13(17), 6651–6656 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

2002

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. F. Lu, W. K. Choi, Y. Aoyagi, A. Kinomura, and K. Fujii, “Controllable laser-induced periodic structures at silicon-dioxide/silicon interface by excimer laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.80(12), 7052–7056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1973

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.23(11), 598–600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anhut, T.

Aoyagi, Y.

Y. F. Lu, W. K. Choi, Y. Aoyagi, A. Kinomura, and K. Fujii, “Controllable laser-induced periodic structures at silicon-dioxide/silicon interface by excimer laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.80(12), 7052–7056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G. A.

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, M.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buividas, R.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, E. E. B.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

J. Kim, S. Na, S. Cho, W. Chang, and K. Whang, “Surface ripple changes during Cr film ablation with a double ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Lasers Eng.46(4), 306–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Chin, S. L.

Cho, S.

J. Kim, S. Na, S. Cho, W. Chang, and K. Whang, “Surface ripple changes during Cr film ablation with a double ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Lasers Eng.46(4), 306–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

Y. F. Lu, W. K. Choi, Y. Aoyagi, A. Kinomura, and K. Fujii, “Controllable laser-induced periodic structures at silicon-dioxide/silicon interface by excimer laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.80(12), 7052–7056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couillard, M.

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T. H. R.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q. F.

Datsyuk, V.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Echenique, P. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emmony, D. C.

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.23(11), 598–600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, K.

Y. F. Lu, W. K. Choi, Y. Aoyagi, A. Kinomura, and K. Fujii, “Controllable laser-induced periodic structures at silicon-dioxide/silicon interface by excimer laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.80(12), 7052–7056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

M. Shinoda, R. R. Gattass, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of nanometer-width grooves on synthetic single-crystal diamond surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. N.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

Gottmann, J.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength surface ripples and in-volume nanostructures by fs-laser induced selective etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5641–5646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griswold, E. M.

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hergenröder, R.

V. Hommes, M. Miclea, and R. Hergenröder, “Silicon surface morphology study after exposure to tailored femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(20), 7449–7460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommes, V.

V. Hommes, M. Miclea, and R. Hergenröder, “Silicon surface morphology study after exposure to tailored femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(20), 7449–7460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hörstmann-Jungemann, M.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength surface ripples and in-volume nanostructures by fs-laser induced selective etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5641–5646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howson, R. P.

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.23(11), 598–600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E. M.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “The morphological and optical characteristics of femtosecond laser-induced large-area micro/nanostructures on GaAs, Si, and brass,” Opt. Express18(S4Suppl 4), A600–A619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, P. J. Liu, X. L. Yan, N. Leng, C. C. Xu, H. Xiao, and Y. F. Lu, “High-throughput rear-surface drilling of microchannels in glass based on electron dynamics control using femtosecond pulse trains,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2781–2783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Plasma modeling for ultrashort pulse laser ablation of dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Repeatable nanostructures in dielectrics by femtosecond laser pulse trains,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, S. Na, S. Cho, W. Chang, and K. Whang, “Surface ripple changes during Cr film ablation with a double ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Lasers Eng.46(4), 306–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kinomura, A.

Y. F. Lu, W. K. Choi, Y. Aoyagi, A. Kinomura, and K. Fujii, “Controllable laser-induced periodic structures at silicon-dioxide/silicon interface by excimer laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.80(12), 7052–7056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

Korn, G.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudrius, T.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Le Harzic, R.

Leng, N.

Li, M.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

Liu, H. Y.

Liu, P. J.

Lu, Y. F.

L. Jiang, P. J. Liu, X. L. Yan, N. Leng, C. C. Xu, H. Xiao, and Y. F. Lu, “High-throughput rear-surface drilling of microchannels in glass based on electron dynamics control using femtosecond pulse trains,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2781–2783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Lu, W. K. Choi, Y. Aoyagi, A. Kinomura, and K. Fujii, “Controllable laser-induced periodic structures at silicon-dioxide/silicon interface by excimer laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.80(12), 7052–7056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lysak, T. M.

Mazur, E.

M. Shinoda, R. R. Gattass, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of nanometer-width grooves on synthetic single-crystal diamond surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menon, S.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miclea, M.

V. Hommes, M. Miclea, and R. Hergenröder, “Silicon surface morphology study after exposure to tailored femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(20), 7449–7460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Müller, N.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Na, S.

J. Kim, S. Na, S. Cho, W. Chang, and K. Whang, “Surface ripple changes during Cr film ablation with a double ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Lasers Eng.46(4), 306–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nibarger, J. P.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, J. S.

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

Rosa, L.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, D.

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, H.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinoda, M.

M. Shinoda, R. R. Gattass, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of nanometer-width grooves on synthetic single-crystal diamond surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Šlekys, G.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Šliupas, R.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoian, R.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoss, A.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, H. F.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trofimov, V. A.

Tsai, H. L.

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Plasma modeling for ultrashort pulse laser ablation of dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Repeatable nanostructures in dielectrics by femtosecond laser pulse trains,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallée, R.

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whang, K.

J. Kim, S. Na, S. Cho, W. Chang, and K. Whang, “Surface ripple changes during Cr film ablation with a double ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Lasers Eng.46(4), 306–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Willis, L. J.

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.23(11), 598–600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, D.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength surface ripples and in-volume nanostructures by fs-laser induced selective etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5641–5646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. J.

Xiao, H.

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, P. J. Liu, X. L. Yan, N. Leng, C. C. Xu, H. Xiao, and Y. F. Lu, “High-throughput rear-surface drilling of microchannels in glass based on electron dynamics control using femtosecond pulse trains,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2781–2783 (2012).
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Xu, C. C.

Xu, N. S.

Xu, Z. Z.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “The morphological and optical characteristics of femtosecond laser-induced large-area micro/nanostructures on GaAs, Si, and brass,” Opt. Express18(S4Suppl 4), A600–A619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, X. L.

Yao, J. W.

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. P.

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. Y.

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. L.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “The morphological and optical characteristics of femtosecond laser-induced large-area micro/nanostructures on GaAs, Si, and brass,” Opt. Express18(S4Suppl 4), A600–A619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.23(11), 598–600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Repeatable nanostructures in dielectrics by femtosecond laser pulse trains,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 151104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 353–355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, “Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 265–269 (2003).

Appl. Surf. Sci.

V. Hommes, M. Miclea, and R. Hergenröder, “Silicon surface morphology study after exposure to tailored femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(20), 7449–7460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength surface ripples and in-volume nanostructures by fs-laser induced selective etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(10), 5641–5646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. F. Lu, W. K. Choi, Y. Aoyagi, A. Kinomura, and K. Fujii, “Controllable laser-induced periodic structures at silicon-dioxide/silicon interface by excimer laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.80(12), 7052–7056 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Couillard, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, J. S. Preston, E. M. Griswold, and G. A. Botton, “Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples,” J. Appl. Phys.101(3), 033519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Shinoda, R. R. Gattass, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of nanometer-width grooves on synthetic single-crystal diamond surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.105(5), 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, “Plasma modeling for ultrashort pulse laser ablation of dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, “Formation mechanisms of sub-wavelength ripples during femtosecond laser pulse train processing of dielectrics,” J. Phys. D45(17), 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

J. Kim, S. Na, S. Cho, W. Chang, and K. Whang, “Surface ripple changes during Cr film ablation with a double ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Lasers Eng.46(4), 306–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, and H. L. Tsai, “First-principles calculations of the electron dynamics during femtosecond laser pulse train material interactions,” Phys. Lett. A375(36), 3200–3204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-Organized Nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Rosenfeld, M. Rohloff, S. Höhm, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple parallel polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” Appl. Sur. Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.09.076 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of LIPSS morphology evolution on fused silica surface after irradiation with 10 pulse trains (two pulses per train) at a total fluence of 1.05Fth. The polarization direction is indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LSFL and HSFL at a pulse delay of (a) 0fs, (b) 50fs, (c) 100fs, (d) 200fs, (e) 300fs and (f) 400fs after irradiation with 20 pulse trains (two pulses per train) at a total fluence of 1.16Fth. The polarization direction is indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) AFM profile of LSFL in Fig. 2(a). The LSFL are observed at the bottom of the ablated crater. (b) AFM profile of HSFL in Fig. 2(f).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Periods and areas of LIPSS as a function of pulse delay by 20 pulse trains (two pulses per train) at the total fluence of 1.16Fth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Different fluence regions of the types of surface morphology as functions of pulse delay in fused silica after multiple bursts irradiation. (“Fluence/Fth” represents the ratio of the total fluence to the single-pulse threshold fluence; “○” signifies LSFL at N = 10 and represents disorganized structures at N>10).

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