Abstract

We investigate a non-degenerate phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA) operating in gain saturation experimentally and numerically using the three-wave model. The phase-dependent gain and phase-to-phase transfer functions are obtained for different levels of saturation with good agreement between experimental and numerical data when higher-order FWM is small. Moreover, we identify an operating point where the PSA is found to be able to significantly reduce both phase- and amplitude noise simultaneously.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. C. M Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D26, 1817–1839 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 648–658 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. D. Li, P. Kumar, and W. L Kath, “Dispersion compensation with phase-sensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 12, 541–549 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.
  7. K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express14, 2085–2094 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “RZ-DPSK signal regeneration based on dual-pump phase-sensitive amplification in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2144–2146 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Inoue, “Optical level equalization based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1016–1017 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agrawal, and P. Kumar, “All-optical limiter using gain flattened fibre parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1103–1105 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Matsumoto, “Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all- optical regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1055–1057 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sköld, J. Yang, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, S. Oda, and P. A. Andrekson, “Constellation diagram analysis of DPSK signal regeneration in a saturated parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express16, 5974–5982 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett.36, 4356–4358 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude transfer functions of a saturated phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.
  15. G. Cappellini and S. Trillo, “Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: exact solutions and spatial instability effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8, 824–838 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 2884–2893 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

2011 (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett.36, 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 648–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sköld, J. Yang, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, S. Oda, and P. A. Andrekson, “Constellation diagram analysis of DPSK signal regeneration in a saturated parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express16, 5974–5982 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express14, 2085–2094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “RZ-DPSK signal regeneration based on dual-pump phase-sensitive amplification in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2144–2146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Matsumoto, “Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all- optical regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Inoue, “Optical level equalization based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1016–1017 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agrawal, and P. Kumar, “All-optical limiter using gain flattened fibre parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1103–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. D. Li, P. Kumar, and W. L Kath, “Dispersion compensation with phase-sensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 12, 541–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1982 (1)

C. M Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agrawal, and P. Kumar, “All-optical limiter using gain flattened fibre parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1103–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett.36, 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sköld, J. Yang, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, S. Oda, and P. A. Andrekson, “Constellation diagram analysis of DPSK signal regeneration in a saturated parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express16, 5974–5982 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude transfer functions of a saturated phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “RZ-DPSK signal regeneration based on dual-pump phase-sensitive amplification in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2144–2146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cappellini, G.

Caves, C. M

C. M Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude transfer functions of a saturated phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.

Croussore, K.

K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 648–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express14, 2085–2094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Han, Y.

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, “Optical level equalization based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1016–1017 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Kakande, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett.36, 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sköld, J. Yang, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, S. Oda, and P. A. Andrekson, “Constellation diagram analysis of DPSK signal regeneration in a saturated parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express16, 5974–5982 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude transfer functions of a saturated phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Kath, W. L

R. D. Li, P. Kumar, and W. L Kath, “Dispersion compensation with phase-sensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 12, 541–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kim, I.

Kumar, P.

Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agrawal, and P. Kumar, “All-optical limiter using gain flattened fibre parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1103–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li, P. Kumar, and W. L Kath, “Dispersion compensation with phase-sensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 12, 541–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 648–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express14, 2085–2094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R. D.

R. D. Li, P. Kumar, and W. L Kath, “Dispersion compensation with phase-sensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 12, 541–549 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, C.

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett.36, 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude transfer functions of a saturated phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto, “Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all- optical regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oda, S.

Olsson, S. L. I

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Phelan, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Sjödin, M.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sköld, M.

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

Su, Y.

Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agrawal, and P. Kumar, “All-optical limiter using gain flattened fibre parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1103–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

Sygletos, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “RZ-DPSK signal regeneration based on dual-pump phase-sensitive amplification in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2144–2146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett.36, 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude transfer functions of a saturated phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

Trillo, S.

Wang, L.

Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agrawal, and P. Kumar, “All-optical limiter using gain flattened fibre parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett.36, 1103–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weerasuriya, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Electron. Lett. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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K. Croussore and G. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 648–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunication systems,” Nat. Photonics4, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5, 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Other (3)

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase and amplitude transfer functions of a saturated phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.11.LeCervin.4.

R. Slavík, J. Kakande, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase-regenerative multicasting of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal in a degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers,” in Proceedings European Conference on Optical Communications 2010, paper Mo.1.A.2.

C. Lundström, B. Corcoran, S. L. I Olsson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Short-pulse amplification in a phase-sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1C.1.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated phase-dependent gain, phase-to-phase transfer functions and corresponding complex-signal space trajectories for a PSA with Δk = −2γPP0 (ideally phase-matched) but different small-signal gains.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated phase-dependent gain, phase-to-phase transfer functions and corresponding complex-signal space trajectories for a PSA with Δk = −2γPP0 (top) and Δk = 0 (bottom) but small-signal gains maintained at 14.5 dB in both cases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. The acronyms are explained in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimentally measured phase-dependent gain (a) and phase-to-phase transfer functions (b) for a PSA operating at the peak gain wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally measured complex-space trajectory heat-maps for a PSA operating at the peak gain wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured relative output signal power versus input pump-to-signal power ratio at the phase giving maximal gain for a PSA operating at the peak gain wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimentally measured phase-dependent gain (a) and phase-to-phase transfer functions (b) for a PSA operating in the quadratic gain regime with a pump-to-signal wavelength spacing of 2.1 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PSA output optical spectra with the signal in the exponential gain regime (a) and quadratic gain regime (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output power standard deviation vs. average input pump-to-signal power ratio. The input signal had no amplitude noise, only Gaussian phase noise with a standard deviation of 0.25 rad.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Output power (solid lines) and phase (dashed lines) standard deviations vs. average input pump-to-signal power ratio. The input signal was degraded with Gaussian phase and amplitude noise with a phase standard deviation of 0.25 rad and a normalized amplitude standard deviation of 0.4.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Phase histograms (top row) and power histograms (bottom row) at the PSA input and output when the small-signal gain is 50, 20 and 10 dB, and the input signal power is 48, 18 and 10 dB below the pump power, respectively. The standard deviation σ is indicated in each case.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Signal constellations at the PSA input and output when the small-signal gain is 50, 20 and 10 dB and the input signal power is 48, 18 and 10 dB below the pump power, respectively.

Equations (3)

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i d A p d z = γ [ | A p | 2 + 2 | A s | 2 + | A i | 2 ] A p + 2 γ A s A i A p * exp ( - i Δ k z )
i d A s d z = γ [ 2 | A p | 2 + | A s | 2 + 2 | A i | 2 ] A s + γ A i * A p 2 exp ( i Δ k z )
i d A i d z = γ [ 2 | A p | 2 + 2 | A s | 2 + | A i | 2 ] A i + γ A s * A p 2 exp ( i Δ k z ) ,

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