Abstract

We propose a scheme that combines multi-cycle two-color pump pulses and pre-excited medium to simultaneously control the ionization and acceleration steps of electron wave packet. Intense two-plateau supercontinua are observed at microscopic level, which support isolated attosecond pulse with tunable central wavelength. We further investigate the propagation effects and find that the macroscopic response is mainly associated with the initial population of the excited state. Large initial population can distort the pump field and weaken the phase-matching of the supercontinua due to the high density of free electrons. On the contrary, small initial population of 3% can generate well phase-matched supercontinua, and an efficient isolated attosecond pulse with gaussian-like spatial distribution is directly achieved. The divergence angle of the generated pulse is less than 0.2 mrad, which indicates its beam quality is good. This pulse benefits for some potential applications of ultrafast measurements with high spatiotemporal resolutions.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett.34, 3337–3339 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1684–1689 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses,” Phys. Rev. A76, 051801(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Luo, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, K. Liu, and P. Lu, “Dramatic cutoff extension and broadband supercontinuum generation in multi-cycle two color pulses,” Opt. Express20, 9801–9809 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express18, 11308–11315 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express15, 530–535 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “High-order harmonic generation from intense laser-driven inner electrons of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A69, 033405 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. B. Milošević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 308–317 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Hong, Q. Zhang, X. Zhu, and P. Lu, “Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation in pre-excited medium,” Opt. Express19, 4728–4739 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. Du, L. Luo, X. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation from pre-excited medium with a chirped and chirped-free two-color field,” Opt. Express20, 9713–9725 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47, 412–433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A70, 043802 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A66, 033403 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. K. Avetissian, B. R. Avchyan, and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Two-color multiphoton resonant excitation of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A74, 063413 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

W. Hong, Q. Zhang, X. Zhu, and P. Lu, “Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation in pre-excited medium,” Opt. Express19, 4728–4739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett.34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1684–1689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses,” Phys. Rev. A76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express15, 530–535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

H. K. Avetissian, B. R. Avchyan, and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Two-color multiphoton resonant excitation of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A74, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milošević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 308–317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “High-order harmonic generation from intense laser-driven inner electrons of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A69, 033405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aug, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avchyan, B. R.

H. K. Avetissian, B. R. Avchyan, and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Two-color multiphoton resonant excitation of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A74, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avetissian, H. K.

H. K. Avetissian, B. R. Avchyan, and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Two-color multiphoton resonant excitation of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A74, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses,” Phys. Rev. A76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express15, 530–535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett.34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

Collins, L. A.

S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “High-order harmonic generation from intense laser-driven inner electrons of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A69, 033405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lisio, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Ferrari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleck, J. A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett.34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

Hu, B.

Hu, S. X.

S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “High-order harmonic generation from intense laser-driven inner electrons of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A69, 033405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, C.

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. D.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett.34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lan, P.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1684–1689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses,” Phys. Rev. A76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express15, 530–535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, A.

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1684–1689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses,” Phys. Rev. A76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

Liu, P.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

J. Luo, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, K. Liu, and P. Lu, “Dramatic cutoff extension and broadband supercontinuum generation in multi-cycle two color pulses,” Opt. Express20, 9801–9809 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hong, Q. Zhang, X. Zhu, and P. Lu, “Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation in pre-excited medium,” Opt. Express19, 4728–4739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 1684–1689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses,” Phys. Rev. A76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express15, 530–535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucchini, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Luo, L.

Lyngå, C.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett.34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miloševic, D. B.

Mkrtchian, G. F.

H. K. Avetissian, B. R. Avchyan, and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Two-color multiphoton resonant excitation of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A74, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mücke, O. D.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanpera, A.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, M. M.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C. -G.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

Watson, J. B.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

Yang, Z.

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, C.

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

Zou, P.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London)432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (10)

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian, B. R. Avchyan, and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Two-color multiphoton resonant excitation of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A74, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses,” Phys. Rev. A76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband xuv supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Hu and L. A. Collins, “High-order harmonic generation from intense laser-driven inner electrons of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A69, 033405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The classical ionization (red dots) and recombination (green circles) during pump laser field and (b) the corresponding normalized populations of the excited (yellow area) and ground states (grey area) versus time during the pump field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The microscopic harmonic spectrum and (b) its time-frequency structure from the pre-excited medium with different initial population of the excited state of p = 0.1 (blue curve), p = 0.06 (red curve) and p = 0.03 (green curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The macroscopic on-axis harmonic spectrum in the pre-excited medium with different initial population of the excited state of p = 0.1 (blue curve), p = 0.06 (red curve) and p = 0.03 (green curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The electric fields of the pump pulses after propagation with the initial populations of p = 0.1 (blue line), p = 0.06 (red line) and p = 0.03 (green line), and the initial pump field (dash line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized temporal profiles of the XUV attosecond pulses with the initial populations of (a) p = 0.03, (b) p = 0.06 and (c) p = 0.1. Spatiotemporal profiles of the XUV attosecond pulses at the end of the medium with the initial populations of (d) p = 0.03, (e) p = 0.06 and (f) p = 0.1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized temporal profiles of the water-window attosecond pulses with the initial populations of (a) p = 0.03, (b) p = 0.06 and (c) p = 0.1. Spatiotemporal profiles of the water-window attosecond pulses at the end of the medium with the initial populations of (d) p = 0.03, (e) p = 0.06 and (f) p = 0.1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal profiles of emitted powers of the attosecond pulses with the initial populations of p = 0.03 (green line), p = 0.06 (red line) and p = 0.1 (blue line) (a) in the XUV region and (b) in the water-window region.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The far-field profiles of the (a) XUV and (b) water-window attosecond pulses. The insets are the corresponding images with the distance of 0.5 m from the gas medium.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ ( r , t 0 ) = α | g + β | e ,
d n l ( t ) = Ψ ( r , t ) | x ^ | Ψ ( r , t ) ,
a q = | 1 T 0 T a ( t ) exp ( i q ω t ) | 2 ,
2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E f ( ρ , z , t )
2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) + μ 0 2 P n l ( ρ , z , t ) t 2
P r = 0 R ( 1 2 ε 0 c E a 2 ) 2 π r d r ,

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