Abstract

We report the first successful demonstration of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation using two nested silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators. 50-Gb/s QPSK signal is generated with only 2.7-dB optical signal-to-noise ratio penalties from the theoretical limit at a bit-error ratio of 10−3. This result validates that silicon photonics could be a viable and powerful platform of photonic integrated circuits in coherent optical communications.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

2010

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

2006

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag.7(3), 56–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, D.

Doerr, C. R.

Dong, P.

Essiambre, R.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fontaine, N. K.

Fournier, M.

Fukuda, H.

Gardes, F.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D. M.

R. A. Integlia, L. Yin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, D. M. Gill, and W. Jiang, “Parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonators for quadrature amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express19(16), 14892–14902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Integlia, R. A.

Itabashi, S.

Izhaky, N.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag.7(3), 56–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kuo, B.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Myslivets, E.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D. Z.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag.7(3), 56–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poon, J. K. S.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Radic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag.7(3), 56–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacher, W. D.

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savory, S. J.

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shinojima, H.

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Thomson, D. J.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. M.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Yin, L.

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zlatanovic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Mag.

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag.7(3), 56–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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R. A. Integlia, L. Yin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, D. M. Gill, and W. Jiang, “Parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonators for quadrature amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express19(16), 14892–14902 (2011).
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P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
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N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
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Proc. IEEE

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).
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http://www.ofcnfoec.org/conference_program/2009/images/09-DAndrea.pdf .

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L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon microring-resonator-based modulation and demodulation of DQPSK Signals,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2008), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWL5.

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, H. Kusaka, K. Oda, T. Liow, X. Tu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “20-Gbps silicon photonic waveguide nested Mach-Zehnder QPSK modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JTh2A.20.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Silicon-PIC QPSK modulator. (a) Photograph of a fabricated silicon PIC. (b) Photograph of the packaged silicon PIC with a printed circuit board (PCB). RF and DC represent RF transmission lines and DC lines on the PCB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for characterizing the packaged Si QPSK modulator. (a) Electrical drive signals. (b) Optical setup. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator; PC: polarization controller; VOA: variable optical attenuator; EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; LO: local oscillator, DSP: digital signal processing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of QPSK modulation. (a) QPSK eye diagram. (b) QPSK optical spectrum (resolution bandwidth is 0.01 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of coherent detection of generated QPSK signals. (a) and (b), constellations after DSP taken at an OSNR of 29.7 dB and 17.8 dB, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BER versus OSNR (0.1-nm noise bandwidth).

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