Abstract

Thermal stability on the structural and optical properties of high indium content InGaN films grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was investigated through long-duration and high-temperature annealing. X-ray diffraction and cathode- luminescence measurements of the 33% indium InGaN revealed no differences in the line-shape and peak position even after annealing at 800°C for 95 min; similar structural stability was found for the 60% samples after annealing for 75 min. The higher thermal stability is attributed to nanoscale InN domains with different orientations create mixed-polarity InGaN/InN interfaces, resulting in higher activation energies at interfaces and increasing the thermal stability of the material. Furthermore, the InGaN films were subjected to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition treatment to regrow a GaN layer; results are promising for the development of high thermal stability InGaN films using the PLD technique.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, H. C. Cho, Y. Kumagai, and A. Koukitu, “Selective growth of InN on patterned GaAs(111)B substrate – influence of InN decomposition at the interface,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.7(7–8), 2019–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Single phase InxGa1−xN (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.63) alloys synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 182107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Hao, H. Ishikawa, and T. Egawa, “Formation chemistry of highdensity nanocraters on the surface of sapphire substrates with an in situ etching and growth mechanism of device-quality GaN films on the etched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4041–4043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

C. C. Chuo, M. N. Chang, F. M. Pan, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effect of composition inhomogeneity on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells upon thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1138–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, T. E. Nee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effects of thermal annealing on the luminescence and structural properties of high indium-content InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(26), 3902–3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. A. El-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, and S. M. Bedair, “Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(1), 40–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B57(24), R15052–R15055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

L. T. Romano, B. S. Krusor, and R. J. Molnar, “Structure of GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2283–2285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aderhold, J.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adikimenakis, A.

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Al-Heji, A. A.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alves, H.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Androulidaki, M.

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bechstedt, F.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. M.

N. A. El-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, and S. M. Bedair, “Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(1), 40–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, M. N.

C. C. Chuo, M. N. Chang, F. M. Pan, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effect of composition inhomogeneity on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells upon thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1138–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. C.

H. Murakami, H. C. Cho, Y. Kumagai, and A. Koukitu, “Selective growth of InN on patterned GaAs(111)B substrate – influence of InN decomposition at the interface,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.7(7–8), 2019–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choopun, S.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chuo, C. C.

C. C. Chuo, M. N. Chang, F. M. Pan, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effect of composition inhomogeneity on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells upon thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1138–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, T. E. Nee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effects of thermal annealing on the luminescence and structural properties of high indium-content InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(26), 3902–3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

C. C. Chuo, M. N. Chang, F. M. Pan, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effect of composition inhomogeneity on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells upon thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1138–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, T. E. Nee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effects of thermal annealing on the luminescence and structural properties of high indium-content InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(26), 3902–3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, S. C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, V. Y.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Dimakis, E.

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Downes, M.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

M. Hao, H. Ishikawa, and T. Egawa, “Formation chemistry of highdensity nanocraters on the surface of sapphire substrates with an in situ etching and growth mechanism of device-quality GaN films on the etched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4041–4043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

El-Masry, N. A.

N. A. El-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, and S. M. Bedair, “Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(1), 40–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emtsev, V. V.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. W.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, H.

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furthmuller, J.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Georgakilas, A.

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graul, J.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hao, M.

M. Hao, H. Ishikawa, and T. Egawa, “Formation chemistry of highdensity nanocraters on the surface of sapphire substrates with an in situ etching and growth mechanism of device-quality GaN films on the etched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4041–4043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harima, H.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, A.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

Humphreys, C.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iliadis, A. A.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iliopoulos, E.

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

M. Hao, H. Ishikawa, and T. Egawa, “Formation chemistry of highdensity nanocraters on the surface of sapphire substrates with an in situ etching and growth mechanism of device-quality GaN films on the etched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4041–4043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, S. V.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jani, O.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Single phase InxGa1−xN (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.63) alloys synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 182107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. A.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klochikhin, A. A.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, A.

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koukitu, A.

H. Murakami, H. C. Cho, Y. Kumagai, and A. Koukitu, “Selective growth of InN on patterned GaAs(111)B substrate – influence of InN decomposition at the interface,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.7(7–8), 2019–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koynov, S.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krusor, B. S.

L. T. Romano, B. S. Krusor, and R. J. Molnar, “Structure of GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2283–2285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, Y.

H. Murakami, H. C. Cho, Y. Kumagai, and A. Koukitu, “Selective growth of InN on patterned GaAs(111)B substrate – influence of InN decomposition at the interface,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.7(7–8), 2019–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. M.

C. C. Chuo, M. N. Chang, F. M. Pan, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effect of composition inhomogeneity on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells upon thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1138–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, T. E. Nee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effects of thermal annealing on the luminescence and structural properties of high indium-content InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(26), 3902–3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Single phase InxGa1−xN (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.63) alloys synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 182107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, E. C.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Single phase InxGa1−xN (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.63) alloys synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 182107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Liu, S. X.

N. A. El-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, and S. M. Bedair, “Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(1), 40–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. L.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K. J.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Melo, L. V.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B. K.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, R. J.

L. T. Romano, B. S. Krusor, and R. J. Molnar, “Structure of GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2283–2285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, T.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mudryi, A. V.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

H. Murakami, H. C. Cho, Y. Kumagai, and A. Koukitu, “Selective growth of InN on patterned GaAs(111)B substrate – influence of InN decomposition at the interface,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys.7(7–8), 2019–2021 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nee, T. E.

C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, T. E. Nee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effects of thermal annealing on the luminescence and structural properties of high indium-content InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(26), 3902–3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niehus, M.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, J.

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, M.

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F. M.

C. C. Chuo, M. N. Chang, F. M. Pan, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effect of composition inhomogeneity on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells upon thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1138–1140 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pantha, B. N.

B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Single phase InxGa1−xN (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.63) alloys synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 182107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelekanos, N. T.

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piner, E. L.

N. A. El-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, and S. M. Bedair, “Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(1), 40–42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Romano, L. T.

L. T. Romano, B. S. Krusor, and R. J. Molnar, “Structure of GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2283–2285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanguino, P.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, R.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, N.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R. P.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. H.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

Shimomoto, K.

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J.

P. Sanguino, M. Niehus, L. V. Melo, R. Schwarz, S. Koynov, T. Monteiro, J. Soares, H. Alves, and B. K. Meyer, “Characterisation of GaN films grown on sapphire by low-temperature cyclic pulsed laser deposition/nitrogen rf plasma,” Solid-State Electron.47(3), 559–563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. P.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stampfl, C.

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B57(24), R15052–R15055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Talyansky, V.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T. Y.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Tsagaraki, K.

E. Iliopoulos, A. Georgakilas, E. Dimakis, A. Adikimenakis, K. Tsagaraki, M. Androulidaki, and N. T. Pelekanos, “InGaN (0001) alloys grown in the entire composition range by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.203(1), 102–105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B57(24), R15052–R15055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vekshin, V. V.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vispute, R. D.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. C.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. Y.

Wang, Z. G.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. Y.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

Xu, X. Q.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, A.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, A. L.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, H.

Zheng, G. L.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q. S.

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Fujii, A. Kobayashi, K. Shimomoto, J. Ohta, M. Oshima, and H. Fujioka, “Structural Characteristics of GaN/InN Heterointerfaces Fabricated at Low Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021003 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

S. W. Feng, E. C. Lin, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Cheng, H. C. Wang, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Thermal annealing effects on an InGaN film with an average indium mole fraction of 0.31,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3906–3908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chuo, M. N. Chang, F. M. Pan, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effect of composition inhomogeneity on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells upon thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1138–1140 (2002).
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C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, T. E. Nee, and J. I. Chyi, “Effects of thermal annealing on the luminescence and structural properties of high indium-content InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(26), 3902–3904 (2000).
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R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, R. P. Sharma, S. Choopun, M. Downes, T. Venkatesan, K. A. Jones, A. A. Iliadis, M. Asif Khan, and J. W. Yang, “Growth of epitaxial GaN films by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(1), 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Guo, X. L. Liu, H. P. Song, A. L. Yang, X. Q. Xu, G. L. Zheng, H. Y. Wei, S. Y. Yang, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “A study of indium incorporation in In-rich InGaN grown by MOVPE,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(10), 3352–3356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, N. Sharma, and C. Humphreys, “Microstructural characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Cryst. Growth231(4), 466–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, V. V. Vekshin, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, J. Aderhold, J. Graul, and E. E. Haller, “Band Gap of InN and In-Rich InxGa1-xN alloys (0.36 < x < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.230(2), R4–R6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

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Solid-State Electron. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern of InGaN film with (a) 33% and (b) 60% indium content in as-deposited state and after annealing at 800°C for 15 min.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD InGaN peak position and RMS surface roughness of series-A and -B as a function of the annealing time at 800°C annealing. The inset shows XRD pattern of the series-B for 15, 75, and 95 min annealing, respectively

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of series-A (a) before and (b) after annealing for 95 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AES depth profile analysis of series-A for (a) as-deposited, and at annealing for (b) 15 min and (c) 95 min; in series-B, (d) for 15 min, (e) for 75 min, and (f) for 95 min annealing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) High-resolution cross-sectional TEM image shows the interface of InGaN/GaN in sample B15, and nanoscale InN with different orientations were found in the sample (b) B15 and (c) B75.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PL spectra of series-B before and after long-duration and high temperature annealing. The inset shows CL spectra of series-A before and after long-duration and high temperature annealing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PL spectra of B15 before and after MOCVD regrowth. The plane view of SEM image in the GaN/InGaN/u-GaN structure is shown in the inset.

Equations (1)

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E(x)= E GaN x ( E GaN E InN )bx (1x)

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