Abstract

We report and analyze the halting of the fuse effect propagation in optical fiber microwires. The increase of the mode field diameter in the tapered region decreases the optical intensity resulting in the extinction of the fuse effect. This fiber element presents a low insertion loss and can be introduced in the optical network in order to protect the active equipment from the damage caused by the fuse effect.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett.24(1), 47–49 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).
  3. F. Domingues, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. André, “High-power effects in damaged and contaminated optical fiber connectors,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.53, 2485–2488 (2011).
  4. R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated ageing in bent fibres caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett.36(5), 414–416 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models,” Proc. SPIE2966, 592–606 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. S. Abedin, M. Nakazawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Backreflected radiation due to a propagating fiber fuse,” Opt. Express17(8), 6525–6531 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. S. Abedin and M. Nakazawa, “Real time monitoring of a fiber fuse using an optical time-domain reflectometer,” Opt. Express18(20), 21315–21321 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single-mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit-breakers,” Electron. Lett.25(1), 33–34 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, Y. Shuto, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse terminator,” in 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Taipei, Taiwan, 2003), 386 Vol.381.
  12. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, and A. A. Frolov, “Destruction of silica fiber cladding by the fuse effect,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1852–1854 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Y. Chen, M. Belal, Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and T. P. Newson, “High frequency current sensing using optical fiber micro-wire,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe and European Quantum Electronics Conference, (Munich, Germany, 2011)
  15. M. Niehus, G. G. M. Fernandes, and A. N. Pinto, “Design of a tunable single photon interferometer based on modal engineered tapered optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE7727, (2010).
  16. S. Todoroki, “Origin of periodic void formation during fiber fuse,” Opt. Express13(17), 6381–6389 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. M. Rocha, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Threshold Power of Fiber Fuse Effect for different types of Optical Fiber,” in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, (Stockholm, Sweden, 2011), Tu.P.13.
  18. M. Facão, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. Andre, “Traveling solutions of the fuse effect in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(1), 109–114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

F. Domingues, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. André, “High-power effects in damaged and contaminated optical fiber connectors,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.53, 2485–2488 (2011).

A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Facão, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. Andre, “Traveling solutions of the fuse effect in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(1), 109–114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. S. Abedin and M. Nakazawa, “Real time monitoring of a fiber fuse using an optical time-domain reflectometer,” Opt. Express18(20), 21315–21321 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Niehus, G. G. M. Fernandes, and A. N. Pinto, “Design of a tunable single photon interferometer based on modal engineered tapered optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE7727, (2010).

2009

K. S. Abedin, M. Nakazawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Backreflected radiation due to a propagating fiber fuse,” Opt. Express17(8), 6525–6531 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).

2002

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated ageing in bent fibres caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett.36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models,” Proc. SPIE2966, 592–606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single-mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit-breakers,” Electron. Lett.25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett.24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

Andre, P. S.

André, P. S.

A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Domingues, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. André, “High-power effects in damaged and contaminated optical fiber connectors,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.53, 2485–2488 (2011).

Antunes, P.

A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single-mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit-breakers,” Electron. Lett.25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett.24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, and A. A. Frolov, “Destruction of silica fiber cladding by the fuse effect,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1852–1854 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Churbanov, M. F.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models,” Proc. SPIE2966, 592–606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, and A. A. Frolov, “Destruction of silica fiber cladding by the fuse effect,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1852–1854 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models,” Proc. SPIE2966, 592–606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Domingues, F.

A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Domingues, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. André, “High-power effects in damaged and contaminated optical fiber connectors,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.53, 2485–2488 (2011).

Facão, M.

A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Facão, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. Andre, “Traveling solutions of the fuse effect in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(1), 109–114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernandes, G. G. M.

M. Niehus, G. G. M. Fernandes, and A. N. Pinto, “Design of a tunable single photon interferometer based on modal engineered tapered optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE7727, (2010).

Frolov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, and A. A. Frolov, “Destruction of silica fiber cladding by the fuse effect,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1852–1854 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single-mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit-breakers,” Electron. Lett.25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett.24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, F.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koukharenko, E.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models,” Proc. SPIE2966, 592–606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

Murugan, G. S.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Niehus, M.

M. Niehus, G. G. M. Fernandes, and A. N. Pinto, “Design of a tunable single photon interferometer based on modal engineered tapered optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE7727, (2010).

Nishimura, N.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated ageing in bent fibres caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett.36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, A. N.

M. Niehus, G. G. M. Fernandes, and A. N. Pinto, “Design of a tunable single photon interferometer based on modal engineered tapered optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE7727, (2010).

Plotnichenko, V. G.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rocha, A. M.

F. Domingues, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. André, “High-power effects in damaged and contaminated optical fiber connectors,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.53, 2485–2488 (2011).

A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Facão, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. Andre, “Traveling solutions of the fuse effect in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(1), 109–114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).

Seo, K.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).

Sessions, N. P.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shiino, M.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).

Sikora, E. S. R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated ageing in bent fibres caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett.36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Snopatin, G. E.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Todoroki, S.

Wilkinson, J. S.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated ageing in bent fibres caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett.36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuguchi, R.

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).

Advances in Optics and Photonics

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Advances in Optics and Photonics1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, “Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers,” Electron. Lett.24(1), 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, “Catastrophic damage and accelerated ageing in bent fibres caused by high optical powers,” Electron. Lett.36(5), 414–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, “Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(15), 783–784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single-mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit-breakers,” Electron. Lett.25(1), 33–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa Review

K. Seo, N. Nishimura, M. Shiino, R. Yuguchi, and H. Sasaki, “Evaluation of high power endurance in optical fiber links,” Furukawa Review24, 17–22 (2003).

IEEE Sens. J.

A. M. Rocha, P. Antunes, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Detection of fiber fuse effect using FBG sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.11(6), 1390–1394 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

F. Domingues, A. M. Rocha, and P. S. André, “High-power effects in damaged and contaminated optical fiber connectors,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.53, 2485–2488 (2011).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

M. Niehus, G. G. M. Fernandes, and A. N. Pinto, “Design of a tunable single photon interferometer based on modal engineered tapered optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE7727, (2010).

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models,” Proc. SPIE2966, 592–606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, Y. Shuto, and R. Nagase, “Fiber fuse terminator,” in 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Taipei, Taiwan, 2003), 386 Vol.381.

A. M. Rocha, F. Domingues, M. Facão, and P. S. André, “Threshold Power of Fiber Fuse Effect for different types of Optical Fiber,” in 13th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, (Stockholm, Sweden, 2011), Tu.P.13.

G. Y. Chen, M. Belal, Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and T. P. Newson, “High frequency current sensing using optical fiber micro-wire,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe and European Quantum Electronics Conference, (Munich, Germany, 2011)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber microwire MFD as function of the cladding diameter, obtained numerically for a wavelength of 1480 nm and parameters that are consistent with the technical data of the G.652D fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. The fuse effect is triggered in the fiber end and is halted by the OFM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OFM measured profiles. Radius values were estimated using microscopic images obtained with an optical microscope (Olympus BH-2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left - Microscopic images (magnification of × 50) of the fiber fuse discharge halting zone in OFM A, for an optical power of 3.0 W (a), and in OFM B for an optical power of 2W (b).The arrow represents the optical signal propagation direction. Right - OFMs diameter in the optical discharge halting zone (the line is a visual guide) (c) and corresponding MFD (d), both as function of the injected optical power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical intensity in the optical discharge halting zone as function of the MFD also in the halting zone

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