Abstract

The polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) was used as a dielectric layer of electroluminescent (EL) device to provide multi-function of electroluminescence and electro-optic shutter. A 50 μm-thick PDLC layer was formed between a transparent electrode and a ZnS:Cu phosphor layer. The electro-optic properties of the EL device were not distorted by the introduction of the PDLC layer. The extraction efficiency of luminescence was improved by more than 14% by PDLC layer. The transmittance of the PDLC was also founded not to be degraded significantly by excitation frequency. Therefore, the electroluminescence of the device was ignited by excitation frequency at a given voltage for full transparency of the PDLC. This device has great potential for applications in transparent displays with the function of a privacy window.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. S. Song, Y. S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of self-emitting Y(V,P)O4 nanophosphors for fabrication of transparent blue-emitting display device,” J. Lumin.132(5), 1278–1284 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Nakanishi, H. Yamashita, and G. Shimaoka, “Preparation and Properties of ZnS:Ag, Cu, Cl Phosphor Powder Emitting Blue Electroluminescence,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.20(11), 2261–2262 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Choi, S. W. Tae, J. H. Seo, and H. K. Jung, “Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices,” J. Solid State Chem.184(6), 1540–1544 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. R. Ronda, “Phosphors for lamps and displays: an applicational view,” J. Alloy. Comp.225(1-2), 534–538 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Mollon, P. G. Polden, and M. J. Morgan, “Electro-optic shutters and filters,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol.29(1), 147–156 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(4), 269–271 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. N. Krasnov, “Selection of dielectrics for alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent device,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 1–13 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency neumatic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm.88(1), 1–6 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Akins and J. West, “Effects of thickness on PDLC electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE1665, 280–289 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012

W. S. Song, Y. S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of self-emitting Y(V,P)O4 nanophosphors for fabrication of transparent blue-emitting display device,” J. Lumin.132(5), 1278–1284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Choi, S. W. Tae, J. H. Seo, and H. K. Jung, “Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices,” J. Solid State Chem.184(6), 1540–1544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency neumatic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm.88(1), 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Yourukova, K. Kolentsov, and E. Radeva, “Effect of second protective layer in AC EL display structures on their characteristics,” Vacuum76(2-3), 199–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Kumbhojkar, V. Nikesh, V. A. Kshirsagar, and S. Mahamuni, “Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.88(11), 6260–6264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. N. Krasnov, “Selection of dielectrics for alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent device,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Amundson, A. van Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, “Morphology and Electro-optic Properties of Polymer-dispersed Liquid-crystal Films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(2), 1646–1654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, and L. C. Chien, “Effect of Polymerization Temperature on the Morphology and Electrooptic Properties of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater.8(10), 2451–2460 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. R. Ronda, “Phosphors for lamps and displays: an applicational view,” J. Alloy. Comp.225(1-2), 534–538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. Akins and J. West, “Effects of thickness on PDLC electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE1665, 280–289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

Y. Nakanishi, H. Yamashita, and G. Shimaoka, “Preparation and Properties of ZnS:Ag, Cu, Cl Phosphor Powder Emitting Blue Electroluminescence,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.20(11), 2261–2262 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. D. Mollon, P. G. Polden, and M. J. Morgan, “Electro-optic shutters and filters,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol.29(1), 147–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1959

K. H. Butler, “Electroluminescence: New light sources, having theoretical as well as practical interest, are created by electroluminescence,” Science129(3348), 544–550 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, B. C.

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akins, R.

R. Akins and J. West, “Effects of thickness on PDLC electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE1665, 280–289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allieri, B.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amundson, K.

K. Amundson, A. van Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, “Morphology and Electro-optic Properties of Polymer-dispersed Liquid-crystal Films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(2), 1646–1654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antonini, L.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M. J.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butler, K. H.

K. H. Butler, “Electroluminescence: New light sources, having theoretical as well as practical interest, are created by electroluminescence,” Science129(3348), 544–550 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, L. C.

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, and L. C. Chien, “Effect of Polymerization Temperature on the Morphology and Electrooptic Properties of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater.8(10), 2451–2460 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. D.

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.-D.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, S. W. Tae, J. H. Seo, and H. K. Jung, “Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices,” J. Solid State Chem.184(6), 1540–1544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Consolini, D.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Depero, L. E.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dotti, G.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, I. T.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-M.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency neumatic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm.88(1), 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, S. D.

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, and L. C. Chien, “Effect of Polymerization Temperature on the Morphology and Electrooptic Properties of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater.8(10), 2451–2460 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. H.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, T.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. K.

S. Choi, S. W. Tae, J. H. Seo, and H. K. Jung, “Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices,” J. Solid State Chem.184(6), 1540–1544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. S.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-K.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. S.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

W. S. Song, Y. S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of self-emitting Y(V,P)O4 nanophosphors for fabrication of transparent blue-emitting display device,” J. Lumin.132(5), 1278–1284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kolentsov, K.

L. Yourukova, K. Kolentsov, and E. Radeva, “Effect of second protective layer in AC EL display structures on their characteristics,” Vacuum76(2-3), 199–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koo, B.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, “Selection of dielectrics for alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent device,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kshirsagar, V. A.

N. Kumbhojkar, V. Nikesh, V. A. Kshirsagar, and S. Mahamuni, “Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.88(11), 6260–6264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumbhojkar, N.

N. Kumbhojkar, V. Nikesh, V. A. Kshirsagar, and S. Mahamuni, “Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.88(11), 6260–6264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, J. Y.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency neumatic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm.88(1), 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maeng, W. J.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahamuni, S.

N. Kumbhojkar, V. Nikesh, V. A. Kshirsagar, and S. Mahamuni, “Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.88(11), 6260–6264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, P. G. Polden, and M. J. Morgan, “Electro-optic shutters and filters,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol.29(1), 147–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, M. J.

J. D. Mollon, P. G. Polden, and M. J. Morgan, “Electro-optic shutters and filters,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol.29(1), 147–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, Y.

Y. Nakanishi, H. Yamashita, and G. Shimaoka, “Preparation and Properties of ZnS:Ag, Cu, Cl Phosphor Powder Emitting Blue Electroluminescence,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.20(11), 2261–2262 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nikesh, V.

N. Kumbhojkar, V. Nikesh, V. A. Kshirsagar, and S. Mahamuni, “Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.88(11), 6260–6264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peruzzi, S.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polden, P. G.

J. D. Mollon, P. G. Polden, and M. J. Morgan, “Electro-optic shutters and filters,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol.29(1), 147–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Radeva, E.

L. Yourukova, K. Kolentsov, and E. Radeva, “Effect of second protective layer in AC EL display structures on their characteristics,” Vacuum76(2-3), 199–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rajaram, C. V.

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, and L. C. Chien, “Effect of Polymerization Temperature on the Morphology and Electrooptic Properties of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater.8(10), 2451–2460 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rajesh, K.

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ronda, C. R.

C. R. Ronda, “Phosphors for lamps and displays: an applicational view,” J. Alloy. Comp.225(1-2), 534–538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. H.

S. Choi, S. W. Tae, J. H. Seo, and H. K. Jung, “Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices,” J. Solid State Chem.184(6), 1540–1544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimaoka, G.

Y. Nakanishi, H. Yamashita, and G. Shimaoka, “Preparation and Properties of ZnS:Ag, Cu, Cl Phosphor Powder Emitting Blue Electroluminescence,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.20(11), 2261–2262 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Son, K. S.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, W. S.

W. S. Song, Y. S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of self-emitting Y(V,P)O4 nanophosphors for fabrication of transparent blue-emitting display device,” J. Lumin.132(5), 1278–1284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tae, S. W.

S. Choi, S. W. Tae, J. H. Seo, and H. K. Jung, “Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices,” J. Solid State Chem.184(6), 1540–1544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency neumatic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm.88(1), 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Blaaderen, A.

K. Amundson, A. van Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, “Morphology and Electro-optic Properties of Polymer-dispersed Liquid-crystal Films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(2), 1646–1654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

West, J.

R. Akins and J. West, “Effects of thickness on PDLC electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE1665, 280–289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiltzius, P.

K. Amundson, A. van Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, “Morphology and Electro-optic Properties of Polymer-dispersed Liquid-crystal Films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(2), 1646–1654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S. H.

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, H.

Y. Nakanishi, H. Yamashita, and G. Shimaoka, “Preparation and Properties of ZnS:Ag, Cu, Cl Phosphor Powder Emitting Blue Electroluminescence,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.20(11), 2261–2262 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

W. S. Song, Y. S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of self-emitting Y(V,P)O4 nanophosphors for fabrication of transparent blue-emitting display device,” J. Lumin.132(5), 1278–1284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. J.

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yourukova, L.

L. Yourukova, K. Kolentsov, and E. Radeva, “Effect of second protective layer in AC EL display structures on their characteristics,” Vacuum76(2-3), 199–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

C. V. Rajaram, S. D. Hudson, and L. C. Chien, “Effect of Polymerization Temperature on the Morphology and Electrooptic Properties of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Chem. Mater.8(10), 2451–2460 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

T. S. Kim, J. S. Park, K. S. Son, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, W. J. Maeng, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, B. Koo, and S. Lee, “Transparent AMOLED display driven by hafnium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor array,” Curr. Appl. Phys.11(5), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dyes Pigm.

C.-Y. Tang, S.-M. Huang, and W. Lee, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics in a dual-frequency neumatic liquid crystal doped with C.I. Acid Red 2,” Dyes Pigm.88(1), 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Park, T. Jeong, M. J. Bae, S. Song, J. Lee, I. T. Han, D. Jung, and S. Yu, “Paper as a Substrate for Inorganic Powder Electroluminescence Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(6), 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp.

C. R. Ronda, “Phosphors for lamps and displays: an applicational view,” J. Alloy. Comp.225(1-2), 534–538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Allieri, S. Peruzzi, L. Antonini, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, D. Consolini, G. Dotti, and L. E. Depero, “Spectroscopic characterization of alternate current electroluminescent devices based on ZnS-Cu,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 79–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Kumbhojkar, V. Nikesh, V. A. Kshirsagar, and S. Mahamuni, “Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.88(11), 6260–6264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

W. S. Song, Y. S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of self-emitting Y(V,P)O4 nanophosphors for fabrication of transparent blue-emitting display device,” J. Lumin.132(5), 1278–1284 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

S. Choi, S. W. Tae, J. H. Seo, and H. K. Jung, “Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices,” J. Solid State Chem.184(6), 1540–1544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Nakanishi, H. Yamashita, and G. Shimaoka, “Preparation and Properties of ZnS:Ag, Cu, Cl Phosphor Powder Emitting Blue Electroluminescence,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.20(11), 2261–2262 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)

S. H. Woo, C. W. Jeon, K. J. Yang, B. D. Choi, K. Rajesh, and B. C. Ahn, “Analysis of Electro-Optic Properties of a Polymer Network Liquid Crystal Display with Crossed Polarizers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 173–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B.-D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B.-K. Kim, “Preparation of Newly Designed Reverse Mode Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals and its Electro-Optic Characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

K. Amundson, A. van Blaaderen, and P. Wiltzius, “Morphology and Electro-optic Properties of Polymer-dispersed Liquid-crystal Films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(2), 1646–1654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. Akins and J. West, “Effects of thickness on PDLC electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE1665, 280–289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. Exp. Psychol.

J. D. Mollon, P. G. Polden, and M. J. Morgan, “Electro-optic shutters and filters,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol.29(1), 147–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Science

K. H. Butler, “Electroluminescence: New light sources, having theoretical as well as practical interest, are created by electroluminescence,” Science129(3348), 544–550 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

A. N. Krasnov, “Selection of dielectrics for alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent device,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

L. Yourukova, K. Kolentsov, and E. Radeva, “Effect of second protective layer in AC EL display structures on their characteristics,” Vacuum76(2-3), 199–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Y. Yang, G. J. Lee, S. K. Song, J. H. Kim, and B. D. Choi, “Polymer Dispersed Electroluminescent device,”The 15th International Symposium on Advanced Display Materials & Devices 2011, pp. 471.

L. Sangaletti, L. E. Depero, B. allieri, L. Antonini, R. Fantini, and M. Bettinelli, Flat Panel Display Materials and Large Area Processes,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.(MRS, 1997) 471, 257–262 (1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conventional EL device (off and on state) using oxide composite as dielectric layer. (b) SBDEL device (off and on state) using birefringence composite of PDLC instead of oxide composite as dielectric layer. (c) Pixel design of SBDEL device (off and on state) for see-through.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photographs of the prepared SBDEL device as-prepared. (b) The blue luminescence at 150 V and 1 kHz from the corresponding device

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic illustration of the measurement of electro-optic property of SBDEL device: P1(with PDLC layer), P2 (without PDLC layer) (b) Intensity of emission spectra as a function of applied voltage at various frequencies (50 Hz to 10 kHz).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The emission spectra measured at the top position, P1 (with PDLC layer) at various frequencies (150 V and 100 Hz, 500 Hz, 1 kHz). (b) The emission spectra measured at the bottom position, P2 (without PDLC layer) at various frequencies (150 V and 100 Hz, 500 Hz, 1 kHz). (c) Color coordinates (CIE 1931 color space) measured at P1 (150 V and 100 Hz (●), 500 Hz (■), 1 kHz (▲)) and P2 (150 V and 100 Hz (○), 500 Hz (□), 1 kHz (△)).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative intensity of emission spectra measured at P1 (with PDLC layer) and P2 (without PDLC layer) as a function of excitation voltage at various frequencies.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical microscope image of whole device structure. (b) Magnified SEM image of the interface between the PDLC layer and the phosphor (white dashed line). (c) Magnified SEM image of the interface between the phosphor and the ITO (white arrow).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Transmittance-frequency (T-F) curve of the PDLC at a variety of voltage. (b) Transmittance-voltage curve of the PDLC at a variety of frequency. (Thickness of PDLC: 7 μm)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) SBDEL device with a phosphor pattern of ‘DGIST’ blinds the see-through image when the voltage is not applied. (b) The device showing a see-through image when the applied voltage is increased to 150 V at 100 Hz. (c) The electroluminescence of the phosphor pattern of ‘DGIST’ was dramatically enhanced by increasing the excitation frequency from 100 Hz to 1 kHz at 150 V.

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