Abstract

Regular and cascaded long period gratings (LPG, C-LPG) of periods ranging from 460 to 590 μm were inscribed in an endlessly single mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using CO2 laser for sensing measurements of helium, argon and acetylene. High index sensitivities in excess of 1700 nm/RIU were achieved in both grating schemes with a period of 460 μm. The sharp interference fringes in the transmission spectrum of C-PCF-LPG afforded not only greatly enhanced sensing resolution, but also accuracy when the phase-shift of the fringe pattern is determined through spectral processing. Comparative numerical and experimental studies indicated LP01 to LP03 mode coupling as the principal coupling step for both PCF-LPG and C-PCF-LPG with emergence of multi-mode coupling at shorter grating periods or longer resonance wavelengths.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Rindorf, P. E. Høiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.385(8), 1370–1375 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Emiliyanov, J. B. Jensen, O. Bang, P. E. Hoiby, L. H. Pedersen, E. M. Kjaer, and L. Lindvold, “Localized biosensing with topas microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 460–462 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 1974–1976 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Konorov, A. Zheltikov, and M. Scalora, “Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector,” Opt. Express13(9), 3454–3459 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zhang, X. Tang, J. Dong, T. Wei, and H. Xiao, “Zeolite thin film-coated long period fiber grating sensor for measuring trace chemical,” Opt. Express16(11), 8317–8323 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Gu, Y. Xu, and K. Gao, “Optical fiber long-period grating with solgel coating for gas sensor,” Opt. Lett.31(16), 2405–2407 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Gong, and A. Wang, “Fully distributed fiber-optic hydrogen sensing using acoustically induced long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 733–735 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Tian, Z. He, and H. Du, “Numerical and experimental investigation of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber for refractive index sensing of gas media,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 380–382 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, “Numerical analysis of refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.129(1), 99–105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating sensors: biosensing, refractive index, strain, and temperature sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(3), 310–324 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings inscribed in air- and water-filled photonic crystal fiber for refractometric sensing of aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 044105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H.-J. Kim, O.-J. Kown, S. B. Lee, and Y.-G. Han, “Measurement of temperature and refractive index based on surface long-period gratings deposited onto a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 81–85 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, Z. Diao, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, “Refractive index sensing with an air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2523–2525 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. M. Bingham, J. N. Anker, L. E. Kreno, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Gas sensing with high-resolution localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(49), 17358–17359 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. E. Fan, T. Zhu, L. Shi, and Y. J. Rao, “Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on two cascaded special long-period fiber gratings with rotary refractive index modulation,” Appl. Opt.50(23), 4604–4610 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett.29(4), 346–348 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in the core of optical fiber by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett.26(21), 1657–1659 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Jágerská, N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, Z. Diao, and R. Houdré, “Refractive index gas sensing in a hollow photonic crystal cavity,” 2010 12th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON 2010, art. no. 5549037.
  27. E. R. Peck and D. J. Fisher, “Dispersion of argon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.54(11), 1362 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. van Brakel, “Sensing characteristics of an optical fibre long-period grating Michelson refractometer,” DIng. thesis (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, 2004).

2012

2011

Y. E. Fan, T. Zhu, L. Shi, and Y. J. Rao, “Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on two cascaded special long-period fiber gratings with rotary refractive index modulation,” Appl. Opt.50(23), 4604–4610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Gong, and A. Wang, “Fully distributed fiber-optic hydrogen sensing using acoustically induced long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 733–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Kim, O.-J. Kown, S. B. Lee, and Y.-G. Han, “Measurement of temperature and refractive index based on surface long-period gratings deposited onto a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 81–85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. M. Bingham, J. N. Anker, L. E. Kreno, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Gas sensing with high-resolution localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(49), 17358–17359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, Z. Diao, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, “Refractive index sensing with an air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2523–2525 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

Z. Gu, Y. Xu, and K. Gao, “Optical fiber long-period grating with solgel coating for gas sensor,” Opt. Lett.31(16), 2405–2407 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rindorf, P. E. Høiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.385(8), 1370–1375 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Konorov, A. Zheltikov, and M. Scalora, “Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector,” Opt. Express13(9), 3454–3459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1965

L. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

Adnet, A.

G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.-J.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. M. Bingham, J. N. Anker, L. E. Kreno, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Gas sensing with high-resolution localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(49), 17358–17359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badding, J. V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Baril, N. F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, J. M.

J. M. Bingham, J. N. Anker, L. E. Kreno, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Gas sensing with high-resolution localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(49), 17358–17359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

Bock, W. J.

Carlsen, A.

Childs, P.

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chong, J. H.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cusano, A.

Diao, Z.

Dong, J.

Du, H.

F. Tian, Z. He, and H. Du, “Numerical and experimental investigation of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber for refractive index sensing of gas media,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 380–382 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, “Numerical analysis of refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.129(1), 99–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings inscribed in air- and water-filled photonic crystal fiber for refractometric sensing of aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emiliyanov, G.

Fan, Y. E.

Finlayson, C. E.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, D. J.

Foglia Manzillo, P.

Folkenberg, J. R.

Gao, K.

Geschke, O.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Høiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.385(8), 1370–1375 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordano, M.

Gong, J.

D. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Gong, and A. Wang, “Fully distributed fiber-optic hydrogen sensing using acoustically induced long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 733–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grover, C. P.

G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.

Han, W.-T.

Han, Y.-G.

H.-J. Kim, O.-J. Kown, S. B. Lee, and Y.-G. Han, “Measurement of temperature and refractive index based on surface long-period gratings deposited onto a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 81–85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Haryono, H.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Z.

F. Tian, Z. He, and H. Du, “Numerical and experimental investigation of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber for refractive index sensing of gas media,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 380–382 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings inscribed in air- and water-filled photonic crystal fiber for refractometric sensing of aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, “Numerical analysis of refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.129(1), 99–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoiby, P. E.

Høiby, P. E.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Høiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.385(8), 1370–1375 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houdré, R.

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jágerská, J.

Jang, H. S.

Jensen, J. B.

Jin, W.

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanka, J.

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, “Numerical analysis of refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.129(1), 99–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, H.-J.

H.-J. Kim, O.-J. Kown, S. B. Lee, and Y.-G. Han, “Measurement of temperature and refractive index based on surface long-period gratings deposited onto a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 81–85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

Kjaer, E. M.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konorov, S.

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

Kown, O.-J.

H.-J. Kim, O.-J. Kown, S. B. Lee, and Y.-G. Han, “Measurement of temperature and refractive index based on surface long-period gratings deposited onto a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 81–85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kreno, L. E.

J. M. Bingham, J. N. Anker, L. E. Kreno, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Gas sensing with high-resolution localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(49), 17358–17359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavlinskaia, N.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K. S.

Lee, S. B.

H.-J. Kim, O.-J. Kown, S. B. Lee, and Y.-G. Han, “Measurement of temperature and refractive index based on surface long-period gratings deposited onto a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 81–85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

Lindvold, L.

Lu, C.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, L. H.

L. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Paek, U. C.

Park, Y.

Peck, E. R.

Pedersen, L. H.

Pilla, P.

Rao, M. K.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Riishede, J.

Rindorf, L.

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating sensors: biosensing, refractive index, strain, and temperature sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(3), 310–324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, P. E. Høiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.385(8), 1370–1375 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sazio, P. J. A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalora, M.

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

Shum, P.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.

G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X.

Thomas, N. L.

Tian, F.

F. Tian, Z. He, and H. Du, “Numerical and experimental investigation of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber for refractive index sensing of gas media,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 380–382 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. M. Bingham, J. N. Anker, L. E. Kreno, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Gas sensing with high-resolution localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(49), 17358–17359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

D. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Gong, and A. Wang, “Fully distributed fiber-optic hydrogen sensing using acoustically induced long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 733–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Y.

D. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Gong, and A. Wang, “Fully distributed fiber-optic hydrogen sensing using acoustically induced long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 733–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Gong, and A. Wang, “Fully distributed fiber-optic hydrogen sensing using acoustically induced long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 733–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Won, D. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Xu, Y.

Yohana, A.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, M.

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A.

Zhu, T.

Zhu, Y.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings inscribed in air- and water-filled photonic crystal fiber for refractometric sensing of aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, “Numerical analysis of refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.129(1), 99–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Høiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, “Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.385(8), 1370–1375 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

H.-J. Kim, O.-J. Kown, S. B. Lee, and Y.-G. Han, “Measurement of temperature and refractive index based on surface long-period gratings deposited onto a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 81–85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings inscribed in air- and water-filled photonic crystal fiber for refractometric sensing of aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

Z. He, F. Tian, Y. Zhu, N. Lavlinskaia, and H. Du, “Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(12), 4774–4778 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Gong, and A. Wang, “Fully distributed fiber-optic hydrogen sensing using acoustically induced long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 733–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, P. Childs, M. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Ju, and W. Jin, “Relative humidity sensor based on cascaded long-period gratings with hydrogel coatings and Fourier demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1828–1830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

J. M. Bingham, J. N. Anker, L. E. Kreno, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Gas sensing with high-resolution localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(49), 17358–17359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

L. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Z. Gu, Y. Xu, and K. Gao, “Optical fiber long-period grating with solgel coating for gas sensor,” Opt. Lett.31(16), 2405–2407 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Emiliyanov, J. B. Jensen, O. Bang, P. E. Hoiby, L. H. Pedersen, E. M. Kjaer, and L. Lindvold, “Localized biosensing with topas microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 460–462 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tian, Z. He, and H. Du, “Numerical and experimental investigation of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber for refractive index sensing of gas media,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 380–382 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, Z. Diao, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, “Refractive index sensing with an air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2523–2525 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in the core of optical fiber by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett.26(21), 1657–1659 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett.29(4), 346–348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 1974–1976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

G. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

Y. Zhu, Z. He, J. Kanka, and H. Du, “Numerical analysis of refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.129(1), 99–105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Jágerská, N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, Z. Diao, and R. Houdré, “Refractive index gas sensing in a hollow photonic crystal cavity,” 2010 12th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON 2010, art. no. 5549037.

A. van Brakel, “Sensing characteristics of an optical fibre long-period grating Michelson refractometer,” DIng. thesis (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ey-component distributions (at wavelength of 1450 nm) of the likely coupled modes: (a) LP01 core mode; (b) LP02 cladding mode; (c) LP03 cladding mode and (d) LP04 cladding mode. Inset in (a) is the SEM cross section of the PCF used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersive characteristics of the LP0n cladding modes: (a) phase matching curves; (b) evanescent overlaps; (c) coupling coefficients and (d) calculated sensitivities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of (a) as-fabricated PCF-LPGs with periods of 590, 540, 515, 490 and 460 μm and as-fabricated C-PCF-LPGs with periods of (b) 590, (c) 515 and (d) 460 μm. Laser inscription was carried out with the PCF air channels filled with air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of PCF-LPGs with respective resonance wavelengths of: (a) 1224 nm; (b) 1349 nm; (c) 1495 nm; (d) 1575 nm; and (e) 1710 nm in the presence of He, Ar and C2H2 inside of the cladding air channels. (f) Index sensitivity as a function of the resonance wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

IF spectra of C-PCF-LPGs with respective periods of: (a) 590 μm; (b) 515 μm; and (c) 460 μm in the presence of He, Ar and C2H2 inside of the cladding air channels. (d)-(f) are the respective interference fringes at around the center of each transmission band of the C-PCF-LPGs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Processed IF spectral data (a), (c) and (e); and their high-resolution FFTs (b), (d) and (f) for the three C-PCF-LPGs at resonance wavelength of 1220, 1450 and 1690 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of spectral analysis using the experimental IF spectra of the C-PCF-LPGs in gas media. The spectrum from He was used as a reference for the analysis of the phase shifts in the spectra for Ar and C2H2.

Metrics