Abstract

A novel scheme to achieve mode-locking of a multimode laser is demonstrated. Traditional methods to produce ultrashort laser pulses are based on modulating the cavity gain or losses at the cavity roundtrip frequency, favoring the pulsed emission. Here, we rather directly act on the phases of the modes, resulting in constructive interference for the appropriated phase relationship. This was performed on a terahertz quantum cascade laser by multimode injection seeding with an external terahertz pulse, resulting in phase mode-locked terahertz laser pulses of 9ps duration, characterized unambiguously in the time domain.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (2)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. Madéo, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, M. Rosticher, R. Rungsawang, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Frequency tunable terahertz interdigitated photoconductive antennas,” Electron. Lett.46(9), 611–613 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Gkortsas, C. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, and F. X. Kärtner, “Dynamics of actively mode-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express18(13), 13616–13630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, “Quantum coherent control for nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.60(1), 277–292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent Developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, “Coherent control of quantum dynamics - the dream is alive,” Science259(5101), 1581–1589 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(8), 348–350 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.8(7), 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, and M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induces by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.5(1), 4–5 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Amanti, M. I.

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barkan, A.

Beck, M.

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belyanin, A.

V. M. Gkortsas, C. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, and F. X. Kärtner, “Dynamics of actively mode-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express18(13), 13616–13630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

V. M. Gkortsas, C. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, and F. X. Kärtner, “Dynamics of actively mode-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express18(13), 13616–13630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castellano, F.

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dahleh, M.

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C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
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Li, X.

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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
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A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
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J. Madéo, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, M. Rosticher, R. Rungsawang, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Frequency tunable terahertz interdigitated photoconductive antennas,” Electron. Lett.46(9), 611–613 (2010).
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D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
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N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
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J. Madéo, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, M. Rosticher, R. Rungsawang, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Frequency tunable terahertz interdigitated photoconductive antennas,” Electron. Lett.46(9), 611–613 (2010).
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D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
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W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, “Coherent control of quantum dynamics - the dream is alive,” Science259(5101), 1581–1589 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravaro, M.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosticher, M.

J. Madéo, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, M. Rosticher, R. Rungsawang, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Frequency tunable terahertz interdigitated photoconductive antennas,” Electron. Lett.46(9), 611–613 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rungsawang, R.

J. Madéo, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, M. Rosticher, R. Rungsawang, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Frequency tunable terahertz interdigitated photoconductive antennas,” Electron. Lett.46(9), 611–613 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev.104(4), 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, H.

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(8), 348–350 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, “Quantum coherent control for nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.60(1), 277–292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C. Y.

Stetser, D. A.

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.8(7), 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tignon, J.

J. Madéo, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, M. Rosticher, R. Rungsawang, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Frequency tunable terahertz interdigitated photoconductive antennas,” Electron. Lett.46(9), 611–613 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troccoli, M.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turcinková, D.

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinh, N. Q.

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, “Coherent control of quantum dynamics - the dream is alive,” Science259(5101), 1581–1589 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Winnerl, S.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.-K.

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. Silberberg, “Quantum coherent control for nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.60(1), 277–292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Turčinková, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, and M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induces by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.5(1), 4–5 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(8), 348–350 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.8(7), 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev.104(4), 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Madéo, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, M. Rosticher, R. Rungsawang, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Frequency tunable terahertz interdigitated photoconductive antennas,” Electron. Lett.46(9), 611–613 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (5)

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, “Recent Developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, “Coherent control of quantum dynamics - the dream is alive,” Science259(5101), 1581–1589 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Mittleman, Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Frequency domain representation for N = 12 modes with equal amplitude. b) Corresponding time domain intensity profile. A given amplitude spectrum results in different behaviors in the time domain depending on the phase relationship between modes. The case of mode-locking, where all modes have the same phase, is illustrated in blue, whereas the case of a random phase distribution is shown in green.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time domain: the QCL is gated at low frequency compared to the roundtrip time. When the laser is switched on, a seeding pulse is injected in the cavity with a field Eseed(t). After a brief transient regime, the laser gain g(t) is saturated and matches the losses, leading to an output field Eout(t) consisting in a constant amplitude laser pulse train. (b) Frequency domain: the terahertz seed pulses consist in a frequency comb with spacing frep and no frequency offset (green full lines). The free running QCL modes have linewidths smaller than frep (blue full lines) and a priori do not match the excitation comb frequencies. When the laser is gated for Tgate< 1/frep, lines are broadened up to 1/Tgate with overlap over several frequencies of the excitation comb (blue dashed lines). If the laser is gated periodically at frep frequency, an inner comb structure appears, with frep spacing and no frequency offset (red full lines). Each component of the periodically gated QCL spectrum is then excited by a component of the excitation terahertz frequency comb, imprinting its phase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The seed THz pulses are produced by illuminating an interdigited photo-conductive antenna with near infrared femtosecond laser pulses. After a THz seed pulse enters the QCL, a square RF pulse synchronized to the femtosecond laser pulse biases the QCL above lasing threshold. The THz beam emitted and a split-off beam from the femtosecond beam are then focused onto a ZnTe crystal for the electro-optic sampling detection. (b) Detection of the emitted field, with a quarter wave electro-optic sampling geometry. The signal is proportional to the amplitude of THz field emitted by the QCL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Amplitude and phase resolved measurements of the emitted electric field, for a THz seed pulse generated with 4V applied to the photo-conductive antenna. A DC bias of 120A/cm2 and 7.5W RF pulse is applied to the QCL, equivalent to adding around 129A/cm2. The laser threshold is 167A/cm2. The seeding pulse is injected in the QCL at t = −24ps. Inset: expanded view of the TDS measurement between t = 526ps and t = 528ps. b) Instantaneous emitted intensity, calculated from the TDS field measurement. A train of pulses, separated by the cavity round trip (35ps), is clearly visible, with a FWHM of 9ps in intensity. c) Pulse width (blue square, right axis) and spectrum width (red circle, left axis) as a function of the number of round trips in the QCL. d) Fourier transform of the measured electrical field in the steady state regime. Several modes are visible, separated by the cavity free spectral range (29GHz). A spectrum of the free running QCL, obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), has been superimposed. Both are renormalized to their maximum value and are resolution limited.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The phase of each laser mode (in blue) is obtained from the argument of the complex FFT of the field measured in the steady state region (t>300ps). Similarly, a measurement of the seeding pulse field provide after FFT the spectral phase of the seeding pulse (green line). In the inset, an expanded view for clarity, around the laser modes’ frequencies, showing unambiguously that the phases are identical. The spectral phase of the seeding pulse has negligible variation over the frequency bandwidth of the laser (2π × 6∙10−3 rad standard deviation). (b) Reconstructed field from the measured amplitudes and phases.

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