Abstract

Passive remote sensing of the Earth system has used spatial resolutions ranging from meters to kilometers. It is thus necessary to understand how data products with different spatial resolutions can be compared with each other, and how sub-pixel variations may affect data comparison. This is particularly important for ocean color remote sensing where the measured signal (water-leaving radiance or remote sensing reflectance) is a non-linear function of sub-surface constituents. As a result, products at low resolution are not necessarily arithmetic or geometric means of those at higher resolution. Here, we developed analytical expressions to link ocean color properties derived from high- and low-resolution data, and the proof-of-concept is further demonstrated with both simple examples and measurements of MERIS full-resolution (FR) and reduced resolution (RR). These results suggest that current global chlorophyll concentration is likely underestimated due to the coarse spatial resolutions. Application of the expressions will facilitate cross-sensor comparisons and may also reduce uncertainties.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S. Shang, Z. Lee, and G. Wei, “ Characterization of MODIS-derived euphotic zone depth: results for the China Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(1), 180–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16192–16208 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(4), 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “Assessment of satellite ocean color products at a coastal site,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110(2), 192–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (5)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and K. P. Du, “Effects of molecular and particle scatterings on the model parameter for remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4957–4964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hu, B. Nababan, D. C. Biggs, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “ Variability of bio-optical properties at sampling stations and implications for remote sensing: a case study in the north-east Gulf of Mexico,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(11), 2111–2120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karge, “Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay Florida,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(3), 423–441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, “An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89(3), 326–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Bontempi and J. Yoder, “Spatial variability in SeaWiFS imagery of the South Atlantic bight as evidenced by gradients (fronts) in chlorophyll a and water-leaving radiance,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(10–11), 1019–1032 (2004).

2002 (2)

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “ Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39(7), 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

Anstee, J. M.

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(4), 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Arnone, R. A.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

Barnsley, M.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “Assessment of satellite ocean color products at a coastal site,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110(2), 192–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biggs, D. C.

C. Hu, B. Nababan, D. C. Biggs, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “ Variability of bio-optical properties at sampling stations and implications for remote sensing: a case study in the north-east Gulf of Mexico,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(11), 2111–2120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bissett, W. P.

Bontempi, P.

P. Bontempi and J. Yoder, “Spatial variability in SeaWiFS imagery of the South Atlantic bight as evidenced by gradients (fronts) in chlorophyll a and water-leaving radiance,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(10–11), 1019–1032 (2004).

Boss, E.

Bowles, J. H.

Boynton, G. C.

Brando, V. E.

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(4), 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J. C.

C. Hu, Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karge, “Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay Florida,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(3), 423–441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Casey, B.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. F.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “ Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

C. Hu, Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karge, “Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay Florida,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(3), 423–441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, “Remote sensing optical properties of a stratified ocean: an improved interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 19(20), 3428–3430 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clayton, T. D.

C. Hu, Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karge, “Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay Florida,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(3), 423–441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

L. B. Eisner and T. J. Cowles, “Spatial variations in phytoplankton pigment ratios, optical properties, and environmental gradients in Oregon coast surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C10), C10S14 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

d’Entremont, R. P.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, “An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89(3), 326–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Dekker, A. G.

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(4), 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Del Castillo, C.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Disney, M.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doll, C.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

Du, K.

Du, K. P.

Dunderdale, M.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dye, J.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, L. B.

L. B. Eisner and T. J. Cowles, “Spatial variations in phytoplankton pigment ratios, optical properties, and environmental gradients in Oregon coast surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C10), C10S14 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B.

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

Fry, E. S.

Gao, B. C.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39(7), 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters (2): Bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32(33), 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleason, A.

Goode, W. A.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Hargreaves, B. R.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hobson, P.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, B. Nababan, D. C. Biggs, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “ Variability of bio-optical properties at sampling stations and implications for remote sensing: a case study in the north-east Gulf of Mexico,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(11), 2111–2120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karge, “Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay Florida,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(3), 423–441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, D. D. R.

Lance, V. P.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

Lee, Z.

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. Shang, Z. Lee, and G. Wei, “ Characterization of MODIS-derived euphotic zone depth: results for the China Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(1), 180–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Lewis, M. R.

Lewis, P.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Louchard, E. M.

Lubac, B.

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Lucht, W.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lyzenga, D. R.

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39(7), 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S. D.

Mélin, F.

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “Assessment of satellite ocean color products at a coastal site,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110(2), 192–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Montes, M.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. J.

Morel, A.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39(7), 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters (2): Bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32(33), 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, J. P.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Karge, F. E.

C. Hu, Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karge, “Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay Florida,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(3), 423–441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, B. Nababan, D. C. Biggs, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “ Variability of bio-optical properties at sampling stations and implications for remote sensing: a case study in the north-east Gulf of Mexico,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(11), 2111–2120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nababan, B.

C. Hu, B. Nababan, D. C. Biggs, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “ Variability of bio-optical properties at sampling stations and implications for remote sensing: a case study in the north-east Gulf of Mexico,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(11), 2111–2120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, A. R.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “ Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phinn, S. R.

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(4), 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

Pope, R. M.

Privette, J. L.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
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Reid, R. P.

Roberts, G.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roelfsema, C.

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(4), 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roy, D.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

Schaaf, C. B.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shang, S.

S. Shang, Z. Lee, and G. Wei, “ Characterization of MODIS-derived euphotic zone depth: results for the China Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(1), 180–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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Steward, R. G.

Strahler, A.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
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Stramski, D.

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, “An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89(3), 326–350 (2004).
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Strugnell, N. C.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Swarzenski, P.

C. Hu, Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karge, “Assessment of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay Florida,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(3), 423–441 (2004).
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Tsang, T.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Vaillancourt, R.

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

Wei, G.

S. Shang, Z. Lee, and G. Wei, “ Characterization of MODIS-derived euphotic zone depth: results for the China Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(1), 180–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
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Weidemann, A.

Weidemann, A. D.

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
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Wettle, M.

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(4), 755–770 (2009).
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P. Bontempi and J. Yoder, “Spatial variability in SeaWiFS imagery of the South Atlantic bight as evidenced by gradients (fronts) in chlorophyll a and water-leaving radiance,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(10–11), 1019–1032 (2004).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Zhang, X.

C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. P. d’Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, J. L. Privette, and D. Roy, “First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 135–148 (2002).
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Deep Sea Res., Part II (1)

P. Bontempi and J. Yoder, “Spatial variability in SeaWiFS imagery of the South Atlantic bight as evidenced by gradients (fronts) in chlorophyll a and water-leaving radiance,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(10–11), 1019–1032 (2004).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

C. Hu, B. Nababan, D. C. Biggs, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “ Variability of bio-optical properties at sampling stations and implications for remote sensing: a case study in the north-east Gulf of Mexico,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(11), 2111–2120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

Z. P. Lee, B. Casey, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, A. R. Parsons, M. Montes, B. C. Gao, W. A. Goode, C. Davis, and J. Dye, “Water and bottom properties of a coastal environment derived from Hyperion data measured from the EO-1 spacecraft platform,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 011502 (2007).
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J. Geophys. Res. (5)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “ Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, V. P. Lance, S. Shang, R. Vaillancourt, S. Freeman, B. Lubac, B. R. Hargreaves, C. Del Castillo, R. Miller, M. Twardowski, and G. Wei, “An assessment of optical properties and primary production derived from remote sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx),” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00F03 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(left) A pixel observed by a low-resolution sensor; (right) Pixels observed by a high-resolution sensor, corresponding to the low-resolution pixel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Rrs of 4 high-resolution pixels and their average. First value and second value in the parenthesis are the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton and CDOM at 440 nm, respectively. (b) Absorption spectrum derived from the average Rrs (blue line), as compared with the average absorption spectra using various schemes, including arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and backscattering-weighted mean (Eq. (8)).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Rrs of 4 high-resolution pixels with varying bottom depth, and their arithmetic mean. Bottom reflectance (albedo) and water column properties are assumed the same. (b) Bottom depth derived from the average Rrs, HLo, as compared with the average bottom depth using various schemes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MERIS measurements over the southern Ocean east of Argentina on 12/26/2011, 13:22 GMT, covering an area of about 163 x 134 km2. (a) aFR(440) (m−1) derived from the full-resolution (FR, 300 m) Rrs data using the QAA algorithm; (b) aRR(440) derived from the reduced-resolution (RR, 1.2 km) Rrs data using the same algorithm. 1 pixel in the RR image corresponds to 16 pixels in the FR image; (c) Ratio of aRR(440) over arithmetic mean of aFR(440); (d) Ratio of aRR(440) over backscattering-weighted mean of aFR(440) (Eq. (8)). Note that many pixels in (c) show ratios significantly lower than 1.0, as predicted in Fig. 2(b). Black points in (c) and (d) indicate clouds. The histograms of the ratios are shown below.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of ratios between aRR(440) derived from MERIS RR data (1.2 km) and various averages of aFR(440) derived from MERIS FR (300 m) data. For any 1.2-km pixel, the average values over the corresponding sixteen 300-m pixels were calculated as arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and backscattering-weighted mean (Eq. (8)). The three ratios are 0.95 ± 0.54 (mean ± standard deviation), 0.97 ± 0.28, and 0.99 ± 0.14, respectively, while they are all skewed towards values < 1.0.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Symbol and definition of spatially averaged properties.

Equations (15)

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Rrs=G( g 0 + g 1 b b a+ b b ) b b a+ b b .
Rr s Lo =G( g 0 + g 1 b b Lo a Lo + b b Lo ) b b Lo a Lo + b b Lo ,
Rr s Lo = Rr s Hi (i) ¯ .
a Lo a Hi (i) ¯ .
Rrsg' b b a ,
g' b b Lo a Lo g' b b Hi (i) a Hi (i) ¯ .
b b Lo a Lo 1 n i=1 n b b Hi (i) a Hi (i) .
a Lo n b b Lo i=1 n a Hi (i) i=1 n ( b b Hi (i) j=1,ji n1 a Hi (j) ) .
b b Lo b b Hi (i) ¯ .
Rrs=G( r rs C + r rs B ) =G[ r rs dp ( 1 e D c (a+ b b )H )+ ρ π e D B (a+ b b )H ].
ρ Lo e D B (a+ b b ) H Lo ρ Hi (i) e D B (a+ b b ) H Hi (i) ¯ .
H Lo 1 D B (a+ b b ) ln{ 1 ρ Lo ρ Hi (i) e D B (a+ b b ) H Hi (i) ¯ }.
ρ Lo H Lo ρ Hi (i) H Hi (i) ¯ .
H Lo n ρ Lo i=1 n H Hi (i) i=1 n ( ρ Hi (i) j=1,ji n1 H Hi (j) ) .
H Lo n i=1 n 1 H Hi (i) .

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