Abstract

The giant improvement of ultraviolet response behavior of a conventional GaN p-n film structured detector by the incorporation of slanted GaN nanowires is reported. The GaN nanowires/p-n film structure shows great photoresponse performance, exhibiting a short response time <0.1 s and a high sensitivity, being stable and reproducible with an on/off current contrast ratio as high as 1800 at zero bias under 365 nm ultraviolet light irradiation. Via carefully analyzing the experiment result and the band diagram of the device, the enhancement can be predominantly attributed to the photogenerated electrons in the slanted GaN nanowires.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. T. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. P. Chen, and M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(1), 172–176 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(24), 243106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. L. Low, F. K. Yam, K. P. Beh, and Z. Hassan, “The influence of Ga source and substrate position on the growth of low dimensional GaN wires by chemical vapour deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10052–10055 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Y. Han, Y. H. Gao, and X. H. Zhang, “One-dimensional GaN nanomaterials transformed from one-dimensional Ga2O3 and Ga nanomaterials,” Nano-Micro Lett.1, 4–8 (2009).
  24. J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Dmitriev and A. Oruzheinikov, “The rate of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors and alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.86(6), 3241–3246 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(1), 172–176 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Low, F. K. Yam, K. P. Beh, and Z. Hassan, “The influence of Ga source and substrate position on the growth of low dimensional GaN wires by chemical vapour deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10052–10055 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Weng, T. J. Hsueh, S. J. Chang, S. B. Wang, H. T. Hsueh, and G. J. Huang, “A high-responsivity GaN nanowire UV photodetector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(4), 996–1001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. Y. Han, Y. H. Gao, and X. H. Zhang, “One-dimensional GaN nanomaterials transformed from one-dimensional Ga2O3 and Ga nanomaterials,” Nano-Micro Lett.1, 4–8 (2009).

R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. X. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. P. Chen, and M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Hao, G. Zhou, J. Wu, W. H. Duan, and B. L. Gu, “Spin-polarized electron emitter: Mn-doped GaN nanotubes and their arrays,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Li, Y. Xu, T. Y. Hsiang, and W. R. Donaldson, “Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(12), 2091–2093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Dmitriev and A. Oruzheinikov, “The rate of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors and alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.86(6), 3241–3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(4), 415–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Underwood, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN field emitter array diode with integrated anode,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(2), 822–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aluri, G. S.

G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ang, K. W.

K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anwar, M. Z.

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Basak, D.

R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beh, K. P.

L. L. Low, F. K. Yam, K. P. Beh, and Z. Hassan, “The influence of Ga source and substrate position on the growth of low dimensional GaN wires by chemical vapour deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10052–10055 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bertness, K. A.

G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bojarczuk, N. A.

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(4), 415–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. L.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. S.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bykhovski, A. D.

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Calleja, E.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrano, J. C.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cazzanelli, M.

M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

W. Y. Weng, T. J. Hsueh, S. J. Chang, S. B. Wang, H. T. Hsueh, and G. J. Huang, “A high-responsivity GaN nanowire UV photodetector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(4), 996–1001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Charriere, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. S.

R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. P.

H. T. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. P. Chen, and M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, T.

H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cole, D.

M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cusso, F.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, A. V.

G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deb, P.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. X. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den Hertog, M.

F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(1), 172–176 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Underwood, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN field emitter array diode with integrated anode,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(2), 822–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
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Dmitriev, A.

A. Dmitriev and A. Oruzheinikov, “The rate of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors and alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.86(6), 3241–3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, W. R.

J. L. Li, Y. Xu, T. Y. Hsiang, and W. R. Donaldson, “Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(12), 2091–2093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duan, W. H.

S. G. Hao, G. Zhou, J. Wu, W. H. Duan, and B. L. Gu, “Spin-polarized electron emitter: Mn-doped GaN nanotubes and their arrays,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eiting, C. J.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Escarre, J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Funaoka, C.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y. H.

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Han, Y. H. Gao, and X. H. Zhang, “One-dimensional GaN nanomaterials transformed from one-dimensional Ga2O3 and Ga nanomaterials,” Nano-Micro Lett.1, 4–8 (2009).

Gao, Z. Y.

C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, R.

R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

González-Posada, F.

F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(1), 172–176 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. S.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grudowski, P. A.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B. L.

S. G. Hao, G. Zhou, J. Wu, W. H. Duan, and B. L. Gu, “Spin-polarized electron emitter: Mn-doped GaN nanotubes and their arrays,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gudelis, V.

K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(4), 415–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

H. T. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. P. Chen, and M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, X. Y.

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Han, Y. H. Gao, and X. H. Zhang, “One-dimensional GaN nanomaterials transformed from one-dimensional Ga2O3 and Ga nanomaterials,” Nano-Micro Lett.1, 4–8 (2009).

Hao, S. G.

S. G. Hao, G. Zhou, J. Wu, W. H. Duan, and B. L. Gu, “Spin-polarized electron emitter: Mn-doped GaN nanotubes and their arrays,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassan, Z.

L. L. Low, F. K. Yam, K. P. Beh, and Z. Hassan, “The influence of Ga source and substrate position on the growth of low dimensional GaN wires by chemical vapour deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10052–10055 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F. J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsiang, T. Y.

J. L. Li, Y. Xu, T. Y. Hsiang, and W. R. Donaldson, “Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(12), 2091–2093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, H. T.

W. Y. Weng, T. J. Hsueh, S. J. Chang, S. B. Wang, H. T. Hsueh, and G. J. Huang, “A high-responsivity GaN nanowire UV photodetector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(4), 996–1001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. J.

W. Y. Weng, T. J. Hsueh, S. J. Chang, S. B. Wang, H. T. Hsueh, and G. J. Huang, “A high-responsivity GaN nanowire UV photodetector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(4), 996–1001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. F.

L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. T.

C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G. J.

W. Y. Weng, T. J. Hsueh, S. J. Chang, S. B. Wang, H. T. Hsueh, and G. J. Huang, “A high-responsivity GaN nanowire UV photodetector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(4), 996–1001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Im, S.

H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jarašiunas, K.

K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kapolnek, D.

R. D. Underwood, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN field emitter array diode with integrated anode,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(2), 822–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, B. P.

R. D. Underwood, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN field emitter array diode with integrated anode,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(2), 822–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

R. D. Underwood, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN field emitter array diode with integrated anode,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(2), 822–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. X. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. Y.

T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kisielowski, C.

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lahiji, R.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. X. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C. H.

L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. H.

H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. F.

C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J. L.

J. L. Li, Y. Xu, T. Y. Hsiang, and W. R. Donaldson, “Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(12), 2091–2093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J. H.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. Y.

T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. R.

R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Low, L. L.

L. L. Low, F. K. Yam, K. P. Beh, and Z. Hassan, “The influence of Ga source and substrate position on the growth of low dimensional GaN wires by chemical vapour deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10052–10055 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. Y.

R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lunney, J. G.

M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, T.

K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McLaurin, M.

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyyappan, M.

H. T. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. P. Chen, and M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, P. G.

M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

R. D. Underwood, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN field emitter array diode with integrated anode,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(2), 822–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mo, Y. H.

T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
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F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(1), 172–176 (2012).
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G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
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E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
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K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
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H. T. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. P. Chen, and M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
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M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
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G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
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E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
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P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
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H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
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M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
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P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
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P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. X. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
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G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
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P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. X. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
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E. Monroy, E. Munoz, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, E. Calleja, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, J. A. Munoz, and F. Cusso, “High-performance GaN p-n junction photodetectors for solar ultraviolet applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.13(9), 1042–1046 (1998).
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P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. X. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
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G. S. Aluri, A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, V. P. Oleshko, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and M. V. Rao, “Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO(2)-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants,” Nanotechnology22(29), 295503 (2011).
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P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
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T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
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C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
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C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
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L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
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F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(1), 172–176 (2012).
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K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
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P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
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R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
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Su, J.

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
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T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
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C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
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P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
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K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
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K. Jarašiūnas, T. Malinauskas, S. Nargelas, V. Gudelis, J. V. Vaitkus, V. Soukhoveev, and A. Usikov, “Layer thickness dependent carrier recombination rate in HVPE GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(7), 1703–1706 (2010).
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M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
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P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
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L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
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C. T. Huang, J. H. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
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L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
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J. L. Li, Y. Xu, T. Y. Hsiang, and W. R. Donaldson, “Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(12), 2091–2093 (2004).
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L. L. Low, F. K. Yam, K. P. Beh, and Z. Hassan, “The influence of Ga source and substrate position on the growth of low dimensional GaN wires by chemical vapour deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10052–10055 (2011).
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H. T. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. P. Chen, and M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
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T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
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C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
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R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
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R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
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R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
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K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
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X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
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X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
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L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
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S. G. Hao, G. Zhou, J. Wu, W. H. Duan, and B. L. Gu, “Spin-polarized electron emitter: Mn-doped GaN nanotubes and their arrays,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113403 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. Guha and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Ultraviolet and violet GaN light emitting diodes on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(4), 415–417 (1998).
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M. Cazzanelli, D. Cole, J. F. Donegan, J. G. Lunney, P. G. Middleton, K. P. O'Donnell, C. Vinegoni, and L. Pavesi, “Photoluminescence of localized excitons in pulsed-laser-deposited GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(23), 3390–3392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Sun, M. Z. Anwar, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, A. D. Bykhovski, Z. Liliental-Weber, C. Kisielowski, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Xiang, “Quantum shift of band-edge stimulated emission in InGaN-GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(22), 2978–2980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, H. Sato, C. Poblenz, D. S. Green, J. S. Brown, M. McLaurin, T. Katona, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, J. H. Liang, M. Kato, H. Tamura, S. Omori, and C. Funaoka, “Blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with external quantum efficiency greater than 1.5%,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2748–2750 (2004).
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J. L. Li, Y. Xu, T. Y. Hsiang, and W. R. Donaldson, “Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(12), 2091–2093 (2004).
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R. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Lu, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, L. C. Chen, and Y. J. Yang, “Ultrahigh photocurrent gain in m-axial GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 223106 (2007).
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H. Kang, J. Park, T. Choi, H. Jung, K. H. Lee, S. Im, and H. Kim, “n-ZnO:N/p-Si nanowire photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041117 (2012).
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R. S. Chen, T. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, L. C. Chen, K. H. Chen, Y. J. Yang, C. H. Su, and C. R. Lin, “High-gain photoconductivity in semiconducting InN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 162112 (2009).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, and Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(2), 255–260 (2012).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

L. L. Low, F. K. Yam, K. P. Beh, and Z. Hassan, “The influence of Ga source and substrate position on the growth of low dimensional GaN wires by chemical vapour deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(23), 10052–10055 (2011).
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J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “High-speed pin ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1779–1781 (1998).
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IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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T. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. H. Mo, H. W. Shim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, and G. S. Park, “Growth of GaN nanowires on Si substrate using Ni catalyst in vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor,” J. Cryst. Growth257(1-2), 97–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. D. Underwood, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, D. Kapolnek, B. P. Keller, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN field emitter array diode with integrated anode,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(2), 822–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(1), 172–176 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Nano-Micro Lett. (1)

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Nanotechnology (2)

L. Lin, C. H. Lai, Y. F. Hu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Xu, R. L. Snyder, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “High output nanogenerator based on assembly of GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(47), 475401 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) X-ray diffraction spectrum of the product. Two crystal phases, namely, Al2O3 and hexagonal GaN, are indexed. (b) Top-view FESEM micrograph of the slanted GaN NWs. The inset shows the magnified view of the NWs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EDS analysis of the individual NW. (b) TEM image of the GaN NWs. The inset shows the magnified view of the top.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The schematic diagrams of the GaN NWs/GaN film photodetector. (b) I-V characteristics of the GaN NWs/GaN film photodetector with and without UV (365nm) illumination of 0.3 mW/cm2 shed from the nanowire side. Inset shows the logarithmic plots of Fig. 3(b). (c) Time-dependent photocurrent response to 365 nm UV at zero bias conditions. (d) One response relevant to Fig. 3 (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The schematic band diagrams of the mechanism accounting for the enhancement achieved in the (a) With GaN NWs photodetector as compared to the (b)Without GaN NWs photodetector.

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