Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a new method to generate a dark hollow beam (DHB) and amplify it simultaneously by a liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) filled with CS2. A DHB with an adjustable dark spot size (DSS) is simply obtained by changing the incident angle of the laser beam. Based on non-collinear Brillouin amplification, a weak DHB can be amplified with high gain. The amplification factor of 106 is achieved for a DHB of 4pJ. This DHB should have promising applications in many fields due to its compact structure, low cost, wide adjustment range of the DSS, and wide operating wavelength.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. W. Lu, W. Gao, W. M. He, Z. Zhang, and W. L. J. Hasi, “High amplification and low noise achieved by a double-stage non-collinear Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express17(13), 10675–10680 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, and C. Y. Zhu, “Investigation on competition between the input signal and noise in a Brillouin amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 317–321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Li, Y. Y. Yao, B. Fu, and L. Zhang, “A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre,” Chin. Phys. B19(4), 47103–47108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Dai, Y. H. Xu, and X. F. Chen, “Tunable and low bending loss of liquid-core fiber,” Chin. Opt. Lett.8(1), 14–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

2006

2004

J. P. Yin, N. C. Liu, Y. Xia, and M. Yun, “Generation of hollow laser beams and their applications in modern optics,” Prog. Phys.24, 336–380 (2004).

1997

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atomic funnel with evanescent light,” Phys. Rev. A56(1), 712–718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. L. Power, L. Allen, M. Babiker, and V. E. Lembessis, “Atomic motion in light beams possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A52(1), 479–488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Allen, L.

W. L. Power, L. Allen, M. Babiker, and V. E. Lembessis, “Atomic motion in light beams possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A52(1), 479–488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babiker, M.

W. L. Power, L. Allen, M. Babiker, and V. E. Lembessis, “Atomic motion in light beams possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A52(1), 479–488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, Y. F.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, R.

Chen, X.

Chen, X. F.

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Z. Y.

Cheng, H. D.

Dai, F. F.

Dai, N. L.

Dong, Y. K.

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, Y. K. Dong, and W. L. J. Hasi, “Characteristics of amplified spectrum of a weak frequency-detuned signal in a Brillouin amplifier,” Laser Part. Beams27(03), 465–470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G. Y.

Fu, B.

M. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Li, Y. Y. Yao, B. Fu, and L. Zhang, “A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre,” Chin. Phys. B19(4), 47103–47108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, and C. Y. Zhu, “Investigation on competition between the input signal and noise in a Brillouin amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 317–321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, Y. K. Dong, and W. L. J. Hasi, “Characteristics of amplified spectrum of a weak frequency-detuned signal in a Brillouin amplifier,” Laser Part. Beams27(03), 465–470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Lu, W. Gao, W. M. He, Z. Zhang, and W. L. J. Hasi, “High amplification and low noise achieved by a double-stage non-collinear Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express17(13), 10675–10680 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, A.

Hasi, W. L. J.

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, Y. K. Dong, and W. L. J. Hasi, “Characteristics of amplified spectrum of a weak frequency-detuned signal in a Brillouin amplifier,” Laser Part. Beams27(03), 465–470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Lu, W. Gao, W. M. He, Z. Zhang, and W. L. J. Hasi, “High amplification and low noise achieved by a double-stage non-collinear Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express17(13), 10675–10680 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, W. M.

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, and C. Y. Zhu, “Investigation on competition between the input signal and noise in a Brillouin amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 317–321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, Y. K. Dong, and W. L. J. Hasi, “Characteristics of amplified spectrum of a weak frequency-detuned signal in a Brillouin amplifier,” Laser Part. Beams27(03), 465–470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Lu, W. Gao, W. M. He, Z. Zhang, and W. L. J. Hasi, “High amplification and low noise achieved by a double-stage non-collinear Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express17(13), 10675–10680 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Huang, K. F.

Huang, Y. J.

Ito, H.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atomic funnel with evanescent light,” Phys. Rev. A56(1), 712–718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, W.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atomic funnel with evanescent light,” Phys. Rev. A56(1), 712–718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, W. H.

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lembessis, V. E.

W. L. Power, L. Allen, M. Babiker, and V. E. Lembessis, “Atomic motion in light beams possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A52(1), 479–488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. Q.

Li, J. Y.

X. B. Zhang, X. Zhu, X. Chen, H. Q. Li, J. G. Peng, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “A hollow beam supercontinuum generation by the supermode superposition in a GeO2 doped triangular-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express20(18), 19799–19805 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. Q.

M. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Li, Y. Y. Yao, B. Fu, and L. Zhang, “A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre,” Chin. Phys. B19(4), 47103–47108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. C.

Lin, Y. C.

Liu, L.

Liu, N. C.

J. P. Yin, N. C. Liu, Y. Xia, and M. Yun, “Generation of hollow laser beams and their applications in modern optics,” Prog. Phys.24, 336–380 (2004).

Liu, S. T.

Liu, Z. J.

Lu, T. H.

Lu, Z. W.

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, and C. Y. Zhu, “Investigation on competition between the input signal and noise in a Brillouin amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 317–321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, Y. K. Dong, and W. L. J. Hasi, “Characteristics of amplified spectrum of a weak frequency-detuned signal in a Brillouin amplifier,” Laser Part. Beams27(03), 465–470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Lu, W. Gao, W. M. He, Z. Zhang, and W. L. J. Hasi, “High amplification and low noise achieved by a double-stage non-collinear Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express17(13), 10675–10680 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. Y.

McDuff, R.

Morita, R.

Noh, H. R.

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atomic funnel with evanescent light,” Phys. Rev. A56(1), 712–718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J. G.

Power, W. L.

W. L. Power, L. Allen, M. Babiker, and V. E. Lembessis, “Atomic motion in light beams possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A52(1), 479–488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaki, K.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atomic funnel with evanescent light,” Phys. Rev. A56(1), 712–718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. P.

Sun, D.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q. G.

Toda, Y.

Wang, J. Y.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. L.

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. Z.

H. Y. Ma, H. D. Cheng, W. Z. Zhang, L. Liu, and Y. Z. Wang, “Generation of a hollow laser beam by a multimode fiber,” Chin. Opt. Lett.5, 460–462 (2007).

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

Xia, Y.

J. P. Yin, N. C. Liu, Y. Xia, and M. Yun, “Generation of hollow laser beams and their applications in modern optics,” Prog. Phys.24, 336–380 (2004).

Xu, J.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. D.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. G.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. H.

Yamane, K.

Yao, Y. Y.

M. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Li, Y. Y. Yao, B. Fu, and L. Zhang, “A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre,” Chin. Phys. B19(4), 47103–47108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J. P.

J. P. Yin, N. C. Liu, Y. Xia, and M. Yun, “Generation of hollow laser beams and their applications in modern optics,” Prog. Phys.24, 336–380 (2004).

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. H.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yun, M.

J. P. Yin, N. C. Liu, Y. Xia, and M. Yun, “Generation of hollow laser beams and their applications in modern optics,” Prog. Phys.24, 336–380 (2004).

Zhang, G. Q.

Zhang, H.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

M. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Li, Y. Y. Yao, B. Fu, and L. Zhang, “A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre,” Chin. Phys. B19(4), 47103–47108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. Y.

M. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Li, Y. Y. Yao, B. Fu, and L. Zhang, “A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre,” Chin. Phys. B19(4), 47103–47108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. Z.

Zhang, X. B.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, D. M.

Zhao, Y. G.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K. Y.

Zhu, C. Y.

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, and C. Y. Zhu, “Investigation on competition between the input signal and noise in a Brillouin amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 317–321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Zhuang, S. D.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

W. Gao, D. Sun, Y. F. Bi, J. Y. Li, and Y. L. Wang, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering with high reflectivity and fidelity in liquid-core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B107(2), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, and C. Y. Zhu, “Investigation on competition between the input signal and noise in a Brillouin amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 317–321 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. G. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

Chin. Phys. B

M. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Li, Y. Y. Yao, B. Fu, and L. Zhang, “A dark hollow beam from a selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibre,” Chin. Phys. B19(4), 47103–47108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Laser Part. Beams

W. Gao, Z. W. Lu, W. M. He, Y. K. Dong, and W. L. J. Hasi, “Characteristics of amplified spectrum of a weak frequency-detuned signal in a Brillouin amplifier,” Laser Part. Beams27(03), 465–470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. P. Yin, H. R. Noh, K. Lee, K. H. Kim, Y. Z. Wang, and W. H. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atomic funnel with evanescent light,” Phys. Rev. A56(1), 712–718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Power, L. Allen, M. Babiker, and V. E. Lembessis, “Atomic motion in light beams possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A52(1), 479–488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Phys.

J. P. Yin, N. C. Liu, Y. Xia, and M. Yun, “Generation of hollow laser beams and their applications in modern optics,” Prog. Phys.24, 336–380 (2004).

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Elsevier Pte Ltd., Singapore, 2009), Chap. 9.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modeling schematic of generating a DHB by a LCOF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DSS versus the incident angle θ of the laser beam. Inset, the beam spot images of the DHBs at the incident angles of 0°, 3°, 6° and 9°, and the radial intensity distribution of the DHB at 3°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of non-collinear interaction of the pump and signal beams in a LCOF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near field patterns of output beams for different incident angles. (a) 0°; (b) 3°; (c) 7°; (d) 9°; (e) 12°; (f) 14°

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup of non-collinear Brillouin amplification in a LCOF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spot images of amplifier output (a), (c) with the pump off and (b), (d) with the pump on. (a), (b): the incident angles of the pump and signal are all 0°; (c), (d): the incident angles of the pump and signal are 9° and 6°, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SAF versus (a) EPin and (b) ESin.

Metrics