Abstract

An evanescent field sensor utilizing layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguide configuration was developed in this work. The composite waveguide structure consists of a UV-imprint patterned polymer inverted rib waveguide with a Ta2O5 thin film sputter-deposited on top of the low refractive index polymer layers. The results suggest that the polymer based sensor can achieve a detection limit of 3 × 10−7 RIU for refractive index sensing and corresponding limit of about 100 fg/mm2 for molecular adsorption detection. Besides enhancing the sensitivity significantly, the inorganic coating on the polymer layer was found to block water absorption effectively into the waveguide resulting in a stabilized sensor operation. The ability to use the developed sensor in specific molecular detection was confirmed by investigating antibody – antigen binding reactions. The results of this work demonstrate that high performance sensing capability can be obtained with the developed composite waveguide sensor.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

B. Sun, M. Y. Chen, Y. K. Zhang, J. C. Yang, J. Q. Yao, and H. X. Cui, “Microstructured-core photonic-crystal fiber for ultra-sensitive refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express19(5), 4091–4100 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zinoviev, A. Gonzáez-Guerrero, C. Domíguez, and L. Lechuga, “Integrated bimodal waveguide interferometric biosensor for label-free analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(13), 1926–1930 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Melnik, R. Bruck, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Anal. Chim. Acta699(2), 206–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J.-W. Kim, K. J. Kim, J. A. Yi, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide label-free biosensors with enhanced sensitivity by incorporating low-refractive-index polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 973–980 (2010).

2008

2007

D. R. Cassidy and G. H. Cross, “Picometer resolution wavelength tracking in the C -band using an InP–InGaAsP dual-slab interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(14), 1075–1077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1923–1925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J.87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, “Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide,” Polymer (Guildf.)44(1), 137–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, R. Wijn, P. V. Lambeck, and J. Greve, “Development of a multichannel integrated interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.83(1-3), 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. H. Cross, Y. Ren, and N. J. Freeman, “Young’s fringes from vertically integrated slab waveguides: applications to humidity sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6483–6488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, Y. Hida, and M. Hikita, “Influence of humidity on refractive index of polymers for optical waveguide and its temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1533–1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

W. Lukosz, “Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.6(3), 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bloomer, A. C.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandenburg, A.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruck, R.

E. Melnik, R. Bruck, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Anal. Chim. Acta699(2), 206–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassidy, D. R.

D. R. Cassidy and G. H. Cross, “Picometer resolution wavelength tracking in the C -band using an InP–InGaAsP dual-slab interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(14), 1075–1077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M.

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

S. J. Pearce, M. D. B. Charlton, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Structural characteristics and optical properties of plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtered dielectric thin films for planar waveguiding applications,” Surf. Coat. Tech.206(23), 4930–4939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Cheetham, G. M. T.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M. Y.

Cross, G. H.

D. R. Cassidy and G. H. Cross, “Picometer resolution wavelength tracking in the C -band using an InP–InGaAsP dual-slab interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(14), 1075–1077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Cross, Y. Ren, and N. J. Freeman, “Young’s fringes from vertically integrated slab waveguides: applications to humidity sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6483–6488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H. X.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Domíguez, C.

Freeman, N. J.

G. H. Cross, Y. Ren, and N. J. Freeman, “Young’s fringes from vertically integrated slab waveguides: applications to humidity sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6483–6488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fung, W.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzáez-Guerrero, A.

Greenhough, T. J.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, R. Wijn, P. V. Lambeck, and J. Greve, “Development of a multichannel integrated interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.83(1-3), 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hainberger, R.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Melnik, R. Bruck, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Anal. Chim. Acta699(2), 206–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakalahti, L.

Hida, Y.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, Y. Hida, and M. Hikita, “Influence of humidity on refractive index of polymers for optical waveguide and its temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1533–1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, Y. Hida, and M. Hikita, “Influence of humidity on refractive index of polymers for optical waveguide and its temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1533–1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hiltunen, J.

M. Wang, S. Uusitalo, C. Liedert, J. Hiltunen, L. Hakalahti, and R. Myllylä, “Polymeric dual-slab waveguide interferometer for biochemical sensing applications,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 1886–1893 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Pearce, M. D. B. Charlton, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Structural characteristics and optical properties of plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtered dielectric thin films for planar waveguiding applications,” Surf. Coat. Tech.206(23), 4930–4939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, C.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, D.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S.-M.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.-S.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

Kanger, J. S.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, R. Wijn, P. V. Lambeck, and J. Greve, “Development of a multichannel integrated interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.83(1-3), 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karioja, P.

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kee, J. S.

Kim, G.-D.

G.-D. Kim, G.-S. Son, H.-S. Lee, K.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Integrated photonic glucose biosensor using a vertically coupled microring resonator in polymers,” Opt. Commun.281(18), 4644–4647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-W.

J.-W. Kim, K. J. Kim, J. A. Yi, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide label-free biosensors with enhanced sensitivity by incorporating low-refractive-index polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 973–980 (2010).

Kim, K. J.

J.-W. Kim, K. J. Kim, J. A. Yi, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide label-free biosensors with enhanced sensitivity by incorporating low-refractive-index polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 973–980 (2010).

Kim, K.-D.

G.-D. Kim, G.-S. Son, H.-S. Lee, K.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Integrated photonic glucose biosensor using a vertically coupled microring resonator in polymers,” Opt. Commun.281(18), 4644–4647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-S.

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1923–1925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, R. Wijn, P. V. Lambeck, and J. Greve, “Development of a multichannel integrated interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.83(1-3), 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lämmerhofer, M.

E. Melnik, R. Bruck, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Anal. Chim. Acta699(2), 206–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Lappalainen, J.

S. J. Pearce, M. D. B. Charlton, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Structural characteristics and optical properties of plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtered dielectric thin films for planar waveguiding applications,” Surf. Coat. Tech.206(23), 4930–4939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L.

Lee, C.-K.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.-S.

G.-D. Kim, G.-S. Son, H.-S. Lee, K.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Integrated photonic glucose biosensor using a vertically coupled microring resonator in polymers,” Opt. Commun.281(18), 4644–4647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-S.

G.-D. Kim, G.-S. Son, H.-S. Lee, K.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Integrated photonic glucose biosensor using a vertically coupled microring resonator in polymers,” Opt. Commun.281(18), 4644–4647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-Y.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liedert, C.

Lin, S.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-H.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liow, T. Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lopinski, G.

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, “Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.6(3), 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, R.

Melnik, E.

E. Melnik, R. Bruck, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Anal. Chim. Acta699(2), 206–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyrueis, P.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mischki, T.

Muellner, P.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myles, D. A. A.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myllylä, R.

M. Wang, S. Uusitalo, C. Liedert, J. Hiltunen, L. Hakalahti, and R. Myllylä, “Polymeric dual-slab waveguide interferometer for biochemical sensing applications,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 1886–1893 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

J.-W. Kim, K. J. Kim, J. A. Yi, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide label-free biosensors with enhanced sensitivity by incorporating low-refractive-index polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 973–980 (2010).

Ooba, N.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, Y. Hida, and M. Hikita, “Influence of humidity on refractive index of polymers for optical waveguide and its temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1533–1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, M. K.

Pearce, S.

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, S. J.

S. J. Pearce, M. D. B. Charlton, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Structural characteristics and optical properties of plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtered dielectric thin films for planar waveguiding applications,” Surf. Coat. Tech.206(23), 4930–4939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pepys, M. B.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, E.

Puustinen, J.

S. J. Pearce, M. D. B. Charlton, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Structural characteristics and optical properties of plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtered dielectric thin films for planar waveguiding applications,” Surf. Coat. Tech.206(23), 4930–4939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

G. H. Cross, Y. Ren, and N. J. Freeman, “Young’s fringes from vertically integrated slab waveguides: applications to humidity sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6483–6488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, B.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, J. H.

Schmitt, K.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheu, B.-C.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shichijyo, S.

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, “Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide,” Polymer (Guildf.)44(1), 137–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.-Y.

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1923–1925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, T.

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, “Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide,” Polymer (Guildf.)44(1), 137–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shrive, A. K.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, G.-S.

G.-D. Kim, G.-S. Son, H.-S. Lee, K.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Integrated photonic glucose biosensor using a vertically coupled microring resonator in polymers,” Opt. Commun.281(18), 4644–4647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Sun, B.

Suzuki, K.

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, “Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide,” Polymer (Guildf.)44(1), 137–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takamatsu, N.

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, “Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide,” Polymer (Guildf.)44(1), 137–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

Turnell, W. G.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uusitalo, S.

M. Wang, S. Uusitalo, C. Liedert, J. Hiltunen, L. Hakalahti, and R. Myllylä, “Polymeric dual-slab waveguide interferometer for biochemical sensing applications,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 1886–1893 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Volanakis, J. E.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vörös, J.

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J.87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Wang, M.

M. Wang, S. Uusitalo, C. Liedert, J. Hiltunen, L. Hakalahti, and R. Myllylä, “Polymeric dual-slab waveguide interferometer for biochemical sensing applications,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 1886–1893 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-M.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, Y. Hida, and M. Hikita, “Influence of humidity on refractive index of polymers for optical waveguide and its temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1533–1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wijn, R.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, R. Wijn, P. V. Lambeck, and J. Greve, “Development of a multichannel integrated interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.83(1-3), 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

S. J. Pearce, M. D. B. Charlton, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Structural characteristics and optical properties of plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtered dielectric thin films for planar waveguiding applications,” Surf. Coat. Tech.206(23), 4930–4939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Yang, J. C.

Yao, J. Q.

Yi, J. A.

J.-W. Kim, K. J. Kim, J. A. Yi, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide label-free biosensors with enhanced sensitivity by incorporating low-refractive-index polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 973–980 (2010).

Yiying, J. Q.

Ymeti, A.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, R. Wijn, P. V. Lambeck, and J. Greve, “Development of a multichannel integrated interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.83(1-3), 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Zhang, Y. K.

Zinoviev, K.

Anal. Chim. Acta

E. Melnik, R. Bruck, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Multi-step surface functionalization of polyimide based evanescent wave photonic biosensors and application for DNA hybridization by Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Anal. Chim. Acta699(2), 206–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, P. Karioja, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, M. Wang, J. Puustinen, and J. Lappalainen, “Manipulation of optical field distribution in layered composite polymeric-inorganic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 111113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, Y. Hida, and M. Hikita, “Influence of humidity on refractive index of polymers for optical waveguide and its temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1533–1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J.87(1), 553–561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

S. Lin, C.-K. Lee, Y.-M. Wang, L.-S. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Lee, B.-C. Sheu, and S.-M. Hsu, “Measurement of dimensions of pentagonal doughnut-shaped C-reactive protein using an atomic force microscope and a dual polarisation interferometric biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(2), 323–327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, “Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions,” Biosens. Bioelectron.22(11), 2591–2597 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lukosz, “Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.6(3), 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J.-W. Kim, K. J. Kim, J. A. Yi, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide label-free biosensors with enhanced sensitivity by incorporating low-refractive-index polymers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 973–980 (2010).

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. R. Cassidy and G. H. Cross, “Picometer resolution wavelength tracking in the C -band using an InP–InGaAsP dual-slab interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(14), 1075–1077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1923–1925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. H. Cross, Y. Ren, and N. J. Freeman, “Young’s fringes from vertically integrated slab waveguides: applications to humidity sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6483–6488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Microelectron. Eng.

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, S. Uusitalo, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Fabrication of optical inverted-rib waveguides using UV-imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(2), 175–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Struct. Biol.

A. K. Shrive, G. M. T. Cheetham, D. Holden, D. A. A. Myles, W. G. Turnell, J. E. Volanakis, M. B. Pepys, A. C. Bloomer, and T. J. Greenhough, “Three dimensional structure of human C-reactive protein,” Nat. Struct. Biol.3(4), 346–354 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

G.-D. Kim, G.-S. Son, H.-S. Lee, K.-D. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Integrated photonic glucose biosensor using a vertically coupled microring resonator in polymers,” Opt. Commun.281(18), 4644–4647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Polymer (Guildf.)

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, “Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide,” Polymer (Guildf.)44(1), 137–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, R. Wijn, P. V. Lambeck, and J. Greve, “Development of a multichannel integrated interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.83(1-3), 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Tech.

S. J. Pearce, M. D. B. Charlton, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Structural characteristics and optical properties of plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtered dielectric thin films for planar waveguiding applications,” Surf. Coat. Tech.206(23), 4930–4939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Bäumer, Handbook of Plastic Optics (Wiley-VCH, 2005).

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics, (Wiley, 2004).

J. Comyn, Polymer Permeability (Chapman & Hall, 1985).

R. C. Weast, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Cleveland Ohio USA, 1974).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic image of the integrated YI biosensor based on inverted-rib waveguides; (b) cross-section SEM image of the inverted rib waveguide inside the sensing window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) microscope image showing a part of the YI sensor where the adiabatic transition of the high-index Ta2O5 coating takes place. The intensity profiles of the propagating TM- modes are displayed at the location of Ormoclad covered area, the front edge of the sensing window where Ta2O5 coating thickness is about 20 nm, and the middle of the sensing window where Ta2O5 coating thickness is 80 nm. Inside the sensing window water is considered as the material for the upper cladding; (b) the generated interference pattern at a distance of 2.5 mm from the edge of the sensor chip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The sensitivity of (a) homogeneous refractive index sensing and (b) surface sensing of biomolecular adsorption as a function of the thickness of Ta2O5 coating for both TE- and TM- coupling modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor responses after applying water to the sensing window (a) of a polymer waveguide interferometer sensor (b) of a composite polymeric-inorganic waveguide interferometer sensor; (c) the induced phase change when the refractive index of the core and cladding are varied by water absorption. Dot indicates the observed phase change.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The phase response of (a) smaller and (b) higher glucose concentrations as a function of time when applying water-glucose-water cycle in the sensor window. The w/v concentration and its corresponding refractive index change Δnc with respect to the DI water (n = 1.33) are marked above each measurement response.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in the refractive index of the glucose solutions Δnc versus the induced change in the effective refractive index Δneff.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Phase responses of the molecular binding events between surface attached CRP antibodies and 2 µg/ml (blue line) and 0.1 µg/ml (red line) CRP antigens in buffer solution. The phase response of negative control plotted in black color. Step 1: injection of the CRP antibodies or mouse IgG in negative control; step 3: injection of BSA; step 5: injection of CRP antigens; step 7: injection of secondary CRP antibodies labeled with fluorescent markers; step 2, 4, 6, 8: PBS buffer wash. The images on the lower left corner are the fluorescent microscopic images taken inside the sensing window after the flow of Alexa 546 labeled secondary CRP antibodies; (b) Step by step illustration of biomolecular binding events.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ 2 (x,y)= ( E clad (x,y) E T a 2 O 5 (x,y)dxdy ) 2 E clad 2 (x,y)dxdy E T a 2 O 5 2 (x,y) dxdy
Δ n eff = n eff n c Δ n c + n eff t ad Δ t ad
Δ n c =0.14713×Concentration
M=Δ t ad n ad n c dn / dc

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