Abstract

We demonstrate a submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared phase modulator using a polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC). The required voltage for achieving 2π phase change at λ = 1.06 µm is 70V (or 5.8 V/μm) and the measured response time is ~200 µs at 25°C and 30 µs at 70°C. Opposite to our conventional understanding, a high viscosity LC helps to achieve small domain size during polymerization process, which in turn reduces the response time and light scattering. We use Rayleigh-Gans-Debye scattering model to analyze the voltage-on state transmission spectra. When the domain size is comparable to the wavelength, the model fits with experimental results well. But when the domain size is smaller than the wavelength, the simple Rayleigh model works well.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  2. M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. Myers, G. D. Love, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1689–1699 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1, 39–42 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. De Jeu, C. J. Gerritsma, P. Van Zanten, W. J. A. Goossens, “Relaxation of the dielectric constant and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystal,” Phys. Lett. A 39(5), 355–356 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “High birefringence phenyl-tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36(12), 1401–1408 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Xianyu, X. Liang, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, “High performance dual frequency liquid crystal compounds and mixture for operation at elevated temperature,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1493–1499 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Schadt, “Dielectric heating and relaxations in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 66(1), 319–336 (1981).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, X. Nie, J. H. Lee, S. T. Wu, “Axially-symmetric sheared polymer network liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4638–4644 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, S.- T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Display Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, “Response time and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
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  15. R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990).
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  16. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Apetz, M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: A light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Li, S. T. Wu, “Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 896–901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Einstein, “On the movement of small particles suspended in a stationary liquid demanded by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 549–560 (1905).
  23. D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).
  24. S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y. T. O J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374, 191–195 (2004).
  26. T. Kajiyama, O. Yonekura, J.-I. Nishiwaki, H. Kikuchi, “Interfacial interaction of polymer/liquid crystal molecules and electrooptical properties of their composite systems,” J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 31(11), 1847–1865 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Xianyu, X. Liang, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, “High performance dual frequency liquid crystal compounds and mixture for operation at elevated temperature,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1493–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1, 39–42 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “High birefringence phenyl-tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36(12), 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. Myers, G. D. Love, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1689–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. T. Wu, “Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 896–901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. O J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374, 191–195 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Apetz, M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: A light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y. K. Fung, A. Borstnik, S. Zumer, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Pretransitional nematic ordering in liquid crystals with dispersed polymer networks,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(2), 1637–1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Kajiyama, O. Yonekura, J.-I. Nishiwaki, H. Kikuchi, “Interfacial interaction of polymer/liquid crystal molecules and electrooptical properties of their composite systems,” J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 31(11), 1847–1865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, “Response time and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

M. Schadt, “Dielectric heating and relaxations in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 66(1), 319–336 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. H. De Jeu, C. J. Gerritsma, P. Van Zanten, W. J. A. Goossens, “Relaxation of the dielectric constant and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystal,” Phys. Lett. A 39(5), 355–356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1905 (1)

A. Einstein, “On the movement of small particles suspended in a stationary liquid demanded by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 549–560 (1905).

Apetz, R.

R. Apetz, M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: A light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borstnik, A.

Y. K. Fung, A. Borstnik, S. Zumer, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Pretransitional nematic ordering in liquid crystals with dispersed polymer networks,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(2), 1637–1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1, 39–42 (2010).

Chen, Y.

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, S.- T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Display Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. L.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Jeu, W. H.

W. H. De Jeu, C. J. Gerritsma, P. Van Zanten, W. J. A. Goossens, “Relaxation of the dielectric constant and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystal,” Phys. Lett. A 39(5), 355–356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

Y. K. Fung, A. Borstnik, S. Zumer, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Pretransitional nematic ordering in liquid crystals with dispersed polymer networks,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(2), 1637–1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, “Response time and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, C. N.

Einstein, A.

A. Einstein, “On the movement of small particles suspended in a stationary liquid demanded by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 549–560 (1905).

Erdmann, J. H.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, “Response time and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fung, Y. K.

Y. K. Fung, A. Borstnik, S. Zumer, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Pretransitional nematic ordering in liquid crystals with dispersed polymer networks,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(2), 1637–1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “High birefringence phenyl-tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36(12), 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsma, C. J.

W. H. De Jeu, C. J. Gerritsma, P. Van Zanten, W. J. A. Goossens, “Relaxation of the dielectric constant and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystal,” Phys. Lett. A 39(5), 355–356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Goossens, W. J. A.

W. H. De Jeu, C. J. Gerritsma, P. Van Zanten, W. J. A. Goossens, “Relaxation of the dielectric constant and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystal,” Phys. Lett. A 39(5), 355–356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hikmet, R. A. M.

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, K. J.

Y. T. O J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374, 191–195 (2004).

Hsieh, P. J.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. F.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1, 39–42 (2010).

Huang, Y. P.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1, 39–42 (2010).

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kajiyama, O. Yonekura, J.-I. Nishiwaki, H. Kikuchi, “Interfacial interaction of polymer/liquid crystal molecules and electrooptical properties of their composite systems,” J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 31(11), 1847–1865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kajiyama, O. Yonekura, J.-I. Nishiwaki, H. Kikuchi, “Interfacial interaction of polymer/liquid crystal molecules and electrooptical properties of their composite systems,” J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 31(11), 1847–1865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koo, J. B.

Y. T. O J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374, 191–195 (2004).

Langlois, M.

Lee, J. H.

Li, J.

J. Li, S. T. Wu, “Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 896–901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, X. Liang, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, “High performance dual frequency liquid crystal compounds and mixture for operation at elevated temperature,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1493–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, X. Nie, J. H. Lee, S. T. Wu, “Axially-symmetric sheared polymer network liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4638–4644 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. H.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

Myers, R.

Nie, X.

Nishiwaki, J.-I.

T. Kajiyama, O. Yonekura, J.-I. Nishiwaki, H. Kikuchi, “Interfacial interaction of polymer/liquid crystal molecules and electrooptical properties of their composite systems,” J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 31(11), 1847–1865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

Y. T. O J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374, 191–195 (2004).

Ramsey, R. A.

Ren, H.

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, X. Nie, J. H. Lee, S. T. Wu, “Axially-symmetric sheared polymer network liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4638–4644 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saunter, C. D.

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, “Dielectric heating and relaxations in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 66(1), 319–336 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shen, T. C.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1, 39–42 (2010).

Shin, D. C.

Y. T. O J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374, 191–195 (2004).

Shiu, J. W.

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, S.- T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Display Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, X. Liang, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, “High performance dual frequency liquid crystal compounds and mixture for operation at elevated temperature,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1493–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “High birefringence phenyl-tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36(12), 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Bruggen, M. P. B.

R. Apetz, M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: A light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Zanten, P.

W. H. De Jeu, C. J. Gerritsma, P. Van Zanten, W. J. A. Goossens, “Relaxation of the dielectric constant and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystal,” Phys. Lett. A 39(5), 355–356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.-G.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, “Response time and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, X. Liang, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, “High performance dual frequency liquid crystal compounds and mixture for operation at elevated temperature,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1493–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “High birefringence phenyl-tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36(12), 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, X. Nie, J. H. Lee, S. T. Wu, “Axially-symmetric sheared polymer network liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4638–4644 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. T. Wu, “Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 896–901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.- T.

Wu, Y. H.

Xianyu, H.

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, X. Liang, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, “High performance dual frequency liquid crystal compounds and mixture for operation at elevated temperature,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1493–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “High birefringence phenyl-tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36(12), 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

Y. K. Fung, A. Borstnik, S. Zumer, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Pretransitional nematic ordering in liquid crystals with dispersed polymer networks,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(2), 1637–1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonekura, O.

T. Kajiyama, O. Yonekura, J.-I. Nishiwaki, H. Kikuchi, “Interfacial interaction of polymer/liquid crystal molecules and electrooptical properties of their composite systems,” J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 31(11), 1847–1865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

Y. K. Fung, A. Borstnik, S. Zumer, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Pretransitional nematic ordering in liquid crystals with dispersed polymer networks,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(2), 1637–1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

3D Res. (1)

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1, 39–42 (2010).

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

A. Einstein, “On the movement of small particles suspended in a stationary liquid demanded by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 549–560 (1905).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. T. Wu, “Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 896–901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

T. Kajiyama, O. Yonekura, J.-I. Nishiwaki, H. Kikuchi, “Interfacial interaction of polymer/liquid crystal molecules and electrooptical properties of their composite systems,” J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 31(11), 1847–1865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (3)

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[CrossRef]

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “High birefringence phenyl-tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36(12), 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xianyu, X. Liang, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, “High performance dual frequency liquid crystal compounds and mixture for operation at elevated temperature,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1493–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

Y. T. O J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374, 191–195 (2004).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

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[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

W. H. De Jeu, C. J. Gerritsma, P. Van Zanten, W. J. A. Goossens, “Relaxation of the dielectric constant and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystal,” Phys. Lett. A 39(5), 355–356 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

Y. K. Fung, A. Borstnik, S. Zumer, D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, “Pretransitional nematic ordering in liquid crystals with dispersed polymer networks,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(2), 1637–1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

U. Efron, Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1994).

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Transmission spectra of PNLC 1-5 for an unpolarized light with Vmax applied. Solid lines: experimental results; dashed lines: fitting results with Eq. (1). (b) Wavelength dependent Δn of the five LC hosts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Plot of domain size parameters of PNLC 1-5 versus 1/γ1 of the corresponding LC hosts. (b) Plot of free relaxation time constant of PNLC 1-5 versus (γ1K11)−1. Straight lines are for visual guide only.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) On-state non-polarized light transmission spectra of PNLC 6 at Vmax = 50Vrms (the voltage leading to maximum scattering loss). The vertical dashed lines indicate λ = 1064 nm. (b) Measured voltage dependent transmittance curve of PNLC 6 at 25°C and λ = 1064 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependent 2π phase response time for PNLC 6 at λ = 1.06 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Properties of the Five LC Hosts Used in PNLC 1-5 (22 ̊C).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = 1 2 exp ( C e Δ n 2 λ 0 2 d ) + 1 2 exp ( C o Δ n 2 λ 0 2 d ) ,
x 2 ¯ = k B T 3 π η R t ,
T = 1 2 exp ( C e ' Δ n 2 λ 0 4 d ) + 1 2 exp ( C o ' Δ n 2 λ 0 4 d ) .

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