Abstract

We developed a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout technology for superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) to achieve low-jitter signal readout. By optimizing circuit parameters of the SFQ readout circuit, the input current sensitivity was improved below 10 μA, which is smaller than a typical critical current of SSPD. The experiment using a pulse-pattern generator as an input pulse source revealed that the measured jitter of the SFQ readout circuit is well below the system jitter of our measurement setup for the input current level above 15 μA. The measured jitter of the SSPD connected to the SFQ readout circuit was 37 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) for an SSPD bias current of around 18 μA, which is a significant improvement on 67 ps FWHM jitter observed in conventional readout without an SFQ readout circuit.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37, 2982–2984 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson junction technology for sub-terahertz clock frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.1(1), 3–28 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tomita, and M. Sasaki, “Afterpulse-like phenomenon of superconducting single photon detector in high speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Express19(20), 19562–19571 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H. G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tomita, and M. Sasaki, “Afterpulse-like phenomenon of superconducting single photon detector in high speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Express19(20), 19562–19571 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt.48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson junction technology for sub-terahertz clock frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.1(1), 3–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Allacher, A.

Aoyagi, M.

M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Asai, T.

Baek, B.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt.48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chulkova, G.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. J.

Dixon, A. R.

Domeki, T.

Dynes, J. F.

Dzardanov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Engert, S.

Fernández, V.

Fritzsch, L.

Fujiwara, M.

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tomita, and M. Sasaki, “Afterpulse-like phenomenon of superconducting single photon detector in high speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Express19(20), 19562–19571 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

Hashimoto, Y.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofherr, M.

Honjo, T.

Ilin, K.

Ishizuka, H.

Klaus, W.

Kobayashi, H.

Krichel, N. J.

Kurosawa, I.

M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Länger, T.

Legré, M.

Likharev, K. K.

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson junction technology for sub-terahertz clock frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.1(1), 3–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lipatov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maezawa, M.

M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Makise, K.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37, 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, M.

Maurhart, O.

McCarthy, A.

Meyer, H. G.

Miki, S.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37, 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tomita, and M. Sasaki, “Afterpulse-like phenomenon of superconducting single photon detector in high speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Express19(20), 19562–19571 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monat, L.

Nagasawa, S.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, H.

M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. S.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nambu, Y.

Natarajan, C. M.

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Numata, H.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, J. A.

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okunev, O.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ortlepp, T.

Page, J.-B.

Peev, M.

Poppe, A.

Rall, D.

Ribordy, G.

Robyr, S.

Sakai, Y.

Sasaki, M.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tomita, and M. Sasaki, “Afterpulse-like phenomenon of superconducting single photon detector in high speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Express19(20), 19562–19571 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, V. K.

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson junction technology for sub-terahertz clock frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.1(1), 3–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

Shields, A. J.

Shimizu, K.

Siegel, M.

Smirnov, K.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tahara, S.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, A.

Takada, S.

M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tanaka, A.

Tanner, M. G.

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Terai, H.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37, 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toepfer, H.

Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

Trinkler, P.

Tsurumaru, T.

Uchikoga, S.

Voronov, B.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wakui, K.

Wallace, A. M.

Wang, Z.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37, 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tomita, and M. Sasaki, “Afterpulse-like phenomenon of superconducting single photon detector in high speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Express19(20), 19562–19571 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, R. J.

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37, 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tomita, and M. Sasaki, “Afterpulse-like phenomenon of superconducting single photon detector in high speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Express19(20), 19562–19571 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Yuan, Z. L.

Zeilinger, A.

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 112510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Maezawa, M. Aoyagi, H. Nakagawa, I. Kurosawa, and S. Takada, “Specific capacitance of Nb/AlOx /Nb Josephson junctions with critical current densities in the range of 0.1–18 kA/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2134–2136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. S. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. O’Connor, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, G. S. Buller, R. J. Warburton, S. Miki, Z. Wang, S. W. Nam, and R. H. Hadfield, “Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson junction technology for sub-terahertz clock frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.1(1), 3–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, O. Shatrovoy, R. J. Molnar, D. Rosenberg, J. Yoon, C. E. DeVoe, D. V. Murphy, B. S. Robinson, and D. M. Boroson, “Design of a Ground-Based Optical Receiver for the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” Int. Conf. on Space Optical Systems and Applications, 78–82 (2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Equivalent circuit of MC-DC/SFQ converter. (b) Operating margin of MC-DC/SFQ converters with ICJ1 = 100 μA, 130 μA, and 140 μA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setups for error rate and jitter measurement. Pulse counter used in the error rate measurement is replaced by TCSPC module in the jitter measurement. In both measurements, pulse-pattern generator is employed as a signal source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Error rate curves for IP observed in SFQ readout circuit with ICJ1 = 100 μA, 130 μA and 140 μA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IP dependence of timing jitter observed in SFQ readout circuit with ICJ1 = 130 μA and 140 μA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setups for measuring timing jitter of SSPD. (a) Readout using SFQ circuit. (b) Conventional readout using bias tee and LNA operating at room temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ISSPD dependence of FWHM jitter of SSPD. The measured jitter is plotted for conventional readout with and without 50 Ω shunt resistor and for SFQ readout.

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