Abstract

The conventional signal model of confocal sensors is well established and has proven to be exceptionally robust especially when measuring rough surfaces. Its physical derivation however is explicitly based on plane surfaces or point like objects, respectively. Here we show experimental results of a confocal point sensor measurement of a surface standard. The results illustrate the rise of severe artifacts when measuring curved surfaces. On this basis, we present a systematic extension of the conventional signal model that is proven to be capable of qualitatively explaining these artifacts.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

W. Lyda, M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(5), 054009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Bischoff, E. Manske, and H. Baitinger, “Modeling of profilometry with laser focus sensors,” Proc. SPIE8083, 80830C, 80830C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Fleischle, W. Lyda, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Optical metrology for process control: modeling and simulation of sensors for a comparison of different measurement principles,” Proc. SPIE7718, 77181D, 77181D-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

R. Krüger-Sehm, P. Bakucz, L. Jung, and H. Wilhelms, “Chirp calibration standards for surface measuring instruments,” Tech. Mess.74(11), 572–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Shi, S. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, “Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum,” Opt. Commun.263(2), 156–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2000

H. J. Tiziani, M. Wegner, and D. Steudle, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

J. F. Aguilar and E. R. Mendez, “On the limitations of the confocal scanning optical microscope as a profilometer,” J. Mod. Opt.42(9), 1785–1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

1992

M. A. Browne, O. Akinyemi, and A. Boyde, “Confocal Surface Profiling Utilizing Chromatic Aberration,” Scanning14(3), 145–153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. Molesini, G. Pedrini, P. Poggi, and F. Quercioli, “Focus-wavelength encoded optical profilometer,” Opt. Commun.49(4), 229–233 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978

A. Atalar, “An angularspectrum approach to contrast in reflection acoustic microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5130–5139 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1968

Aguilar, J. F.

J. F. Aguilar and E. R. Mendez, “On the limitations of the confocal scanning optical microscope as a profilometer,” J. Mod. Opt.42(9), 1785–1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Aguilar and E. R. Mendez, “Imaging optically thick objects in scanning microscopy: perfectly conducting surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A11(1), 155–167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akinyemi, O.

M. A. Browne, O. Akinyemi, and A. Boyde, “Confocal Surface Profiling Utilizing Chromatic Aberration,” Scanning14(3), 145–153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atalar, A.

A. Atalar, “An angularspectrum approach to contrast in reflection acoustic microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5130–5139 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baitinger, H.

J. Bischoff, E. Manske, and H. Baitinger, “Modeling of profilometry with laser focus sensors,” Proc. SPIE8083, 80830C, 80830C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bakucz, P.

R. Krüger-Sehm, P. Bakucz, L. Jung, and H. Wilhelms, “Chirp calibration standards for surface measuring instruments,” Tech. Mess.74(11), 572–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bin, H.

Bischoff, J.

J. Bischoff, E. Manske, and H. Baitinger, “Modeling of profilometry with laser focus sensors,” Proc. SPIE8083, 80830C, 80830C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

Boseck, S.

Botcherby, E. J.

Boyd, A.

A. Boyd, “Bibliography on confocal microscopy and its applications,” Scanning16, 33–56 (1994).

Boyde, A.

M. A. Browne, O. Akinyemi, and A. Boyde, “Confocal Surface Profiling Utilizing Chromatic Aberration,” Scanning14(3), 145–153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, A.

Browne, M. A.

M. A. Browne, O. Akinyemi, and A. Boyde, “Confocal Surface Profiling Utilizing Chromatic Aberration,” Scanning14(3), 145–153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Egger, M.

Fleischle, D.

W. Lyda, M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(5), 054009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Fleischle, W. Lyda, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Optical metrology for process control: modeling and simulation of sensors for a comparison of different measurement principles,” Proc. SPIE7718, 77181D, 77181D-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galambos, R.

Gronle, M.

W. Lyda, M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(5), 054009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hadravský, M.

Jung, L.

R. Krüger-Sehm, P. Bakucz, L. Jung, and H. Wilhelms, “Chirp calibration standards for surface measuring instruments,” Tech. Mess.74(11), 572–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

Krüger-Sehm, R.

R. Krüger-Sehm, P. Bakucz, L. Jung, and H. Wilhelms, “Chirp calibration standards for surface measuring instruments,” Tech. Mess.74(11), 572–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lajunen, H.

Li, P.

K. Shi, S. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, “Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum,” Opt. Commun.263(2), 156–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, Z.

K. Shi, S. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, “Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum,” Opt. Commun.263(2), 156–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyda, W.

W. Lyda, M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(5), 054009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Fleischle, W. Lyda, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Optical metrology for process control: modeling and simulation of sensors for a comparison of different measurement principles,” Proc. SPIE7718, 77181D, 77181D-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manske, E.

J. Bischoff, E. Manske, and H. Baitinger, “Modeling of profilometry with laser focus sensors,” Proc. SPIE8083, 80830C, 80830C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mauch, F.

W. Lyda, M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(5), 054009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Fleischle, W. Lyda, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Optical metrology for process control: modeling and simulation of sensors for a comparison of different measurement principles,” Proc. SPIE7718, 77181D, 77181D-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, E. R.

J. F. Aguilar and E. R. Mendez, “On the limitations of the confocal scanning optical microscope as a profilometer,” J. Mod. Opt.42(9), 1785–1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Aguilar and E. R. Mendez, “Imaging optically thick objects in scanning microscopy: perfectly conducting surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A11(1), 155–167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Molesini, G.

G. Molesini, G. Pedrini, P. Poggi, and F. Quercioli, “Focus-wavelength encoded optical profilometer,” Opt. Commun.49(4), 229–233 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.

K. Shi, S. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, “Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum,” Opt. Commun.263(2), 156–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

W. Lyda, M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(5), 054009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Fleischle, W. Lyda, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Optical metrology for process control: modeling and simulation of sensors for a comparison of different measurement principles,” Proc. SPIE7718, 77181D, 77181D-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Molesini, G. Pedrini, P. Poggi, and F. Quercioli, “Focus-wavelength encoded optical profilometer,” Opt. Commun.49(4), 229–233 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Petrán, M.

Poggi, P.

G. Molesini, G. Pedrini, P. Poggi, and F. Quercioli, “Focus-wavelength encoded optical profilometer,” Opt. Commun.49(4), 229–233 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Quercioli, F.

G. Molesini, G. Pedrini, P. Poggi, and F. Quercioli, “Focus-wavelength encoded optical profilometer,” Opt. Commun.49(4), 229–233 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ricka, J.

Ruprecht, A. K.

Shi, K.

K. Shi, S. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, “Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum,” Opt. Commun.263(2), 156–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steudle, D.

H. J. Tiziani, M. Wegner, and D. Steudle, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, J.

Tervo, J.

Tiziani, H. J.

Turunen, J.

Uhde, H.-M.

Vallius, T.

Wang, Y.

Wegner, M.

H. J. Tiziani, M. Wegner, and D. Steudle, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weise, W.

Wiesendanger, T. F.

Wilhelms, H.

R. Krüger-Sehm, P. Bakucz, L. Jung, and H. Wilhelms, “Chirp calibration standards for surface measuring instruments,” Tech. Mess.74(11), 572–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

Wyrowski, F.

Yin, S.

K. Shi, S. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, “Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum,” Opt. Commun.263(2), 156–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zinin, P.

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Atalar, “An angularspectrum approach to contrast in reflection acoustic microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.49(10), 5130–5139 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

J. F. Aguilar and E. R. Mendez, “On the limitations of the confocal scanning optical microscope as a profilometer,” J. Mod. Opt.42(9), 1785–1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Meas. Sci. Technol.

W. Lyda, M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(5), 054009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

K. Shi, S. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, “Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum,” Opt. Commun.263(2), 156–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Molesini, G. Pedrini, P. Poggi, and F. Quercioli, “Focus-wavelength encoded optical profilometer,” Opt. Commun.49(4), 229–233 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. J. Tiziani, M. Wegner, and D. Steudle, “Confocal principle for macro- and microscopic surface and defect analysis,” Opt. Eng.39(1), 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. Bischoff, E. Manske, and H. Baitinger, “Modeling of profilometry with laser focus sensors,” Proc. SPIE8083, 80830C, 80830C-12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Fleischle, W. Lyda, F. Mauch, and W. Osten, “Optical metrology for process control: modeling and simulation of sensors for a comparison of different measurement principles,” Proc. SPIE7718, 77181D, 77181D-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scanning

M. A. Browne, O. Akinyemi, and A. Boyde, “Confocal Surface Profiling Utilizing Chromatic Aberration,” Scanning14(3), 145–153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Boyd, “Bibliography on confocal microscopy and its applications,” Scanning16, 33–56 (1994).

Tech. Mess.

R. Krüger-Sehm, P. Bakucz, L. Jung, and H. Wilhelms, “Chirp calibration standards for surface measuring instruments,” Tech. Mess.74(11), 572–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th edition (Pergamon Press, 1980).

VDI/VDE-Gesellschaft, “Optical measurement of microtopography – Calibration of confocal microscopes and depth setting standards for roughness measurement,” 2655 Blatt 1.2, Beuth Verlag, (2010).

E. Neumann, Single-Mode Fibers (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd edition (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005).

A. Schuldt, “Seeing the wood for the trees,” in Nature Milestones in Light Microscopy 12–13 (Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2009).

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and practice of scanning optical microscopy (Academic Press 1984).

T. R. Corle and G. S. Kino, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Related Imaging Systems (Academic Press, 1996).

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