Abstract

A novel class of high-speed and tunable integrated photonic delay lines that compromise between loss and size is proposed. The devices consist of two cascaded apodized grating waveguides and with complementary (positively and negatively modulated) refractive index profiles for dispersion compensation. It is shown that the compact tunable delay lines are low-loss and offer long true-time delays and tuning ranges and high operation bit rates.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

2010

P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, N. N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18(14), 14474–14479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cardenas, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, H. L. R. Lira, B. Zhang, A. L. Gaeta, J. B. Khurgin, P. Morton, and M. Lipson, “Wide-bandwidth continuously tunable optical delay line using silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18(25), 26525–26534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1997

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

Adachi, J.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baba, T.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baghban, M. A.

Canciamilla, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

Coppinger, F.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Ding, Y. J.

Dong, P.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Ferrari, C.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Error-free continuously-tunable delay at 10 Gbit/s in a reconfigurable on-chip delay-line,” Opt. Express16(12), 8395–8405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fong, J.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikura, N.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S.

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Karalis, A.

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S.

Khurgin, J. B.

Krauss, T. F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Lee, R. K.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Martinelli, M.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Error-free continuously-tunable delay at 10 Gbit/s in a reconfigurable on-chip delay-line,” Opt. Express16(12), 8395–8405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morichetti, F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Error-free continuously-tunable delay at 10 Gbit/s in a reconfigurable on-chip delay-line,” Opt. Express16(12), 8395–8405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morton, P.

Morton, P. A.

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Poladian, L.

Povinelli, M. L.

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Samarelli, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Sipe, J. E.

Soljacic, M.

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, P. D.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Appl. Phys. B

S. G. Johnson, M. L. Povinelli, M. Soljacic, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B81(2–3), 283–293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Photonics

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

I. Giuntoni, D. Stolarek, A. Gajda, J. Bruns, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Integrated drop-filter for dispersion compensation based on SOI rib waveguides” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), p. Th.12.LeSaleve.4 (2011).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988), p. 102.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002), p. 26.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Type 1 and (b) Type 2 of the proposed transmission-mode complementary grating waveguide delay lines; (c) Working principle of each device type and how cascading them allows dispersion compensation in the shown operation regime; (d) Schematic of how cascading can be achieved for transmission-mode operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics showing the cross-section of the waveguide delay line and how the delay can be tuned using (a) electrooptic effect via p-n junction diodes and (b) thermooptic effect via micro-heaters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission and delay spectra of (a) outward and (b) inward apodized gratings using the super-Gaussian function corresponding to gratings 1 and 2 of Fig. 1, respectively. The Bragg wavelength (zero detuning) is at λB = 1,550 nm in both cases, that is identical corrugation periods of Λ = 225.2 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Type 1 and (b) Type 2 of the proposed reflection mode complementary grating waveguide delay lines with linear grating profiles; (c) Working principle of each reflection mode device and how cascading them allows dispersion compensation in the shown operation regime; Two scheme for cascading reflection mode devices using (a) optical circulators and (e) Multi-mode interferometers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission and (b) delay spectra of transmission-mode cascaded devices for various ΔT = T2T1 (temperature difference of grating 1 and grating 2) around a center wavelength of 1,550 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflection and delay spectra of (a) Type 1 reflection-mode device (Fig. 3(a)) and (b) Type 2 reflection mode device (Fig. 3(b)). The Bragg wavelength (zero detuning) is at λB = 1,550 nm and the corrugation periods are Λ = 225.2 nm in both devices.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Transmittivity of the cascaded systems in Fig. 3(e) or (f) based on reflection-mode gratings; (b) Delay spectra of the same systems for various ΔT = T2T1 (temperature difference of grating 1 and grating 2) around a center wavelength of 1,550 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The maximum attainable bit rate and delay versus ΔT = T2T1 for the cascaded devices and their comparison with non-cascaded grating waveguides of the same total length (ΔT = TRT in these cases): (a) Reflection-mode devices and (b) Transmission mode devices.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the State-of-the-Art Silicon Delay Line Techniques

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