Abstract

Sputtered ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were treated using a flat-top nanosecond laser (FTNL) under room temperature. The intensity of the 376 nm electroluminescence (EL) emission of ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite LEDs at a current of 9 mA with FTNL treatment was approximately 1.4 times greater than LEDs without FTNL treatment. Furthermore, the FTNL-treated LEDs indicated a narrower full width at half maximum of the 376 nm EL emission than those of LEDs without FTNL treatment. Thus, FTNL treatment of ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite LEDs could induce the recrystallization of distributed ZnO nanoclusters and reduce the defects in ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite layers.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, S. H. Ko, N. Misra, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. F. Windisch, G. J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L. Q. Wang, “Raman study of the influence of hydrogen on defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Yang, H. Yan, Z. Fu, B. Yang, and J. Zuo, “Correlation between 577 cm−1 Raman scattering and green emission in ZnO ordered nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Sedky, M. Gromova, T. Van der Donck, J.-P. Celis, and A. Witvrouw, “Characterization of KrF excimer laser annealed PECVD SixGe1− x for MEMS post-processing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.127(2), 316–323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lin, H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Band gap engineering and spatial confinement of optical phonon in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 263117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihlemann, “Patterning of oxide thin films by UV-laser ablation,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1191–1195 (2005).

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical. properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett.358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Mo, Y. H. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhancement effect of photoluminescence in assemblies of nano-ZnO particles/silica aerogels,” J. Appl. Phys.83(8), 4389–4391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, B. Jogai, and H. Morkoc, “Similarities in the bandedge and deep-centre photoluminescence mechanisms of ZnO and GaN,” Solid State Commun.101(9), 643–646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adichtchev, S. V.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H.-S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alim, K. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balandin, A. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Botelho do Rego, A. M.

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bratschitsch, R.

Celis, J.-P.

S. Sedky, M. Gromova, T. Van der Donck, J.-P. Celis, and A. Witvrouw, “Characterization of KrF excimer laser annealed PECVD SixGe1− x for MEMS post-processing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.127(2), 316–323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H. C.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. T.

Chen, M. J.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. L.

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. M.

K. F. Lin, H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Band gap engineering and spatial confinement of optical phonon in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 263117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. J.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Z. Q.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical. properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett.358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z. R.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djurišic, A. B.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duda, T. A.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Exarhos, G. J.

C. F. Windisch, G. J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L. Q. Wang, “Raman study of the influence of hydrogen on defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. C.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fonin, M.

Fonoberov, V. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

Y. Yang, H. Yan, Z. Fu, B. Yang, and J. Zuo, “Correlation between 577 cm−1 Raman scattering and green emission in ZnO ordered nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerthsen, D.

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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H. Pan, S. H. Ko, N. Misra, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Sedky, M. Gromova, T. Van der Donck, J.-P. Celis, and A. Witvrouw, “Characterization of KrF excimer laser annealed PECVD SixGe1− x for MEMS post-processing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.127(2), 316–323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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K. F. Lin, H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Band gap engineering and spatial confinement of optical phonon in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 263117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. C.

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lin, H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Band gap engineering and spatial confinement of optical phonon in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 263117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
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J. Ihlemann, “Patterning of oxide thin films by UV-laser ablation,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1191–1195 (2005).

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D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, B. Jogai, and H. Morkoc, “Similarities in the bandedge and deep-centre photoluminescence mechanisms of ZnO and GaN,” Solid State Commun.101(9), 643–646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanaev, A. V.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiliani, G.

Kim, Y. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S. H.

H. Pan, S. H. Ko, N. Misra, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, L. W.

Lai, W. C.

Latyshev, A. V.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, Q. K.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical. properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett.358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. C.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. H.

C. M. Mo, Y. H. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhancement effect of photoluminescence in assemblies of nano-ZnO particles/silica aerogels,” J. Appl. Phys.83(8), 4389–4391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. H.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. F.

K. F. Lin, H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Band gap engineering and spatial confinement of optical phonon in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 263117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. J.

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Litvinov, D.

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

C. M. Mo, Y. H. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhancement effect of photoluminescence in assemblies of nano-ZnO particles/silica aerogels,” J. Appl. Phys.83(8), 4389–4391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. X.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, B. Jogai, and H. Morkoc, “Similarities in the bandedge and deep-centre photoluminescence mechanisms of ZnO and GaN,” Solid State Commun.101(9), 643–646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. M.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. G.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Misra, N.

H. Pan, S. H. Ko, N. Misra, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mo, C. M.

C. M. Mo, Y. H. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhancement effect of photoluminescence in assemblies of nano-ZnO particles/silica aerogels,” J. Appl. Phys.83(8), 4389–4391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monticone, S.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, B. Jogai, and H. Morkoc, “Similarities in the bandedge and deep-centre photoluminescence mechanisms of ZnO and GaN,” Solid State Commun.101(9), 643–646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
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V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nan, C. W.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical. properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett.358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

H. Pan, S. H. Ko, N. Misra, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
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Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrescu, S.

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pratsinis, S. E.

L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, D. C.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, B. Jogai, and H. Morkoc, “Similarities in the bandedge and deep-centre photoluminescence mechanisms of ZnO and GaN,” Solid State Commun.101(9), 643–646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roy, V. A. L.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rüdiger, U.

Schneider, R.

Seager, C. H.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sedky, S.

S. Sedky, M. Gromova, T. Van der Donck, J.-P. Celis, and A. Witvrouw, “Characterization of KrF excimer laser annealed PECVD SixGe1− x for MEMS post-processing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.127(2), 316–323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seung Kim, H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shamsa, M.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, C. L.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Shih, Y. T.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiojiri, M.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, W. J.

L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Surovtsev, N. V.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Surya, C.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sveshnikova, L. L.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tallant, D. R.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H. L.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tufeu, R.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van der Donck, T.

S. Sedky, M. Gromova, T. Van der Donck, J.-P. Celis, and A. Witvrouw, “Characterization of KrF excimer laser annealed PECVD SixGe1− x for MEMS post-processing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.127(2), 316–323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanheusden, K.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, J. A.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. Z.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. Q.

C. F. Windisch, G. J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L. Q. Wang, “Raman study of the influence of hydrogen on defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. W.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. L.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Windisch, C. F.

C. F. Windisch, G. J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L. Q. Wang, “Raman study of the influence of hydrogen on defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Witvrouw, A.

S. Sedky, M. Gromova, T. Van der Donck, J.-P. Celis, and A. Witvrouw, “Characterization of KrF excimer laser annealed PECVD SixGe1− x for MEMS post-processing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.127(2), 316–323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. K.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W. T.

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Yang, H. Yan, Z. Fu, B. Yang, and J. Zuo, “Correlation between 577 cm−1 Raman scattering and green emission in ZnO ordered nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Y. Yang, H. Yan, Z. Fu, B. Yang, and J. Zuo, “Correlation between 577 cm−1 Raman scattering and green emission in ZnO ordered nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. R.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, H. Yan, Z. Fu, B. Yang, and J. Zuo, “Correlation between 577 cm−1 Raman scattering and green emission in ZnO ordered nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

Yao, C.

C. F. Windisch, G. J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L. Q. Wang, “Raman study of the influence of hydrogen on defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
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A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zahn, D. R. T.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zenkevich, E. I.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. D.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Mo, Y. H. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhancement effect of photoluminescence in assemblies of nano-ZnO particles/silica aerogels,” J. Appl. Phys.83(8), 4389–4391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical. properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett.358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Mo, Y. H. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhancement effect of photoluminescence in assemblies of nano-ZnO particles/silica aerogels,” J. Appl. Phys.83(8), 4389–4391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, J.

Y. Yang, H. Yan, Z. Fu, B. Yang, and J. Zuo, “Correlation between 577 cm−1 Raman scattering and green emission in ZnO ordered nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 141–143 (2003).
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K. F. Lin, H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Band gap engineering and spatial confinement of optical phonon in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 263117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, H. Yan, Z. Fu, B. Yang, and J. Zuo, “Correlation between 577 cm−1 Raman scattering and green emission in ZnO ordered nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(19), 191909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical. properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett.358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and ultraviolet electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. F. Windisch, G. J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L. Q. Wang, “Raman study of the influence of hydrogen on defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.101(12), 123711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Mo, Y. H. Li, Y. S. Liu, Y. Zhang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhancement effect of photoluminescence in assemblies of nano-ZnO particles/silica aerogels,” J. Appl. Phys.83(8), 4389–4391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, S. L. Chen, W. T. Wu, C. C. Kao, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Efficient UV photoluminescence from monodispersed secondary ZnO colloidal spheres synthesized by sol–gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth277(1-4), 192–199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys.

A. G. Milekhin, N. A. Yeryukov, L. L. Sveshnikova, T. A. Duda, E. I. Zenkevich, S. S. Kosolobov, A. V. Latyshev, C. Himcinski, N. V. Surovtsev, S. V. Adichtchev, Z. C. Feng, C. C. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys.113(6), 983–991 (2011).
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J. Ihlemann, “Patterning of oxide thin films by UV-laser ablation,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.7, 1191–1195 (2005).

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Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology20(16), 165201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Stat. Sol.

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

S. Sedky, M. Gromova, T. Van der Donck, J.-P. Celis, and A. Witvrouw, “Characterization of KrF excimer laser annealed PECVD SixGe1− x for MEMS post-processing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.127(2), 316–323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. Seung Kim, C.-H. Lee, H.-S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of FTNL system setup. (b) Beam profile of flat-top laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I–V characteristics of LEDs I and II.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1 mA EL spectra for Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN LEDs at RT with and without FTNL treatment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RT EL spectra of LEDs I and II with 9 mA current. The inset displays the EL ratio of ZnO (376 nm) and deep-level GaN:Mg (427 nm) for various forward drive currents.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nonresonant Raman spectra of the ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite films with and without FTNL treatment. Inset shows the HRTEM images of the sputtered ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite layer.

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