Abstract

In this work we demonstrate comprehensive studies on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based saturable absorbers (SA) for mode-locking of Er-doped fiber lasers. The paper describes the fabrication process of both saturable absorbers and detailed comparison of their parameters. Our results show, that there is no significant difference in the laser performance between the investigated SA. Both provided stable, mode-locked operation with sub-400 fs soliton pulses and more than 9 nm optical bandwidth at 1560 nm center wavelength. It has been shown that GO might be successfully used as an efficient SA without the need of its reduction to rGO. Taking into account simpler manufacturing technology and the possibility of mass production, GO seems to be a good candidate as a cost-effective material for saturable absorbers for Er-doped fiber lasers.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (7)

2011 (8)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Mamalis, “Femtosecond laser: the future of cataract surgery?” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1177–1178 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tien, Y. Huang, S. Yang, J. Wang, and C. M. Ma, “The production of graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles for use in transparent, conductive films,” Carbon49(5), 1550–1560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Xie, and X.-Y. Ye, “High-concentration organic solutions of poly(styrene-cobutadiene-co-styrene)-modified graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite,” Carbon49(11), 3529–3537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (11)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stehr, C. M. Morris, C. Schmidt, and M. S. Sherwin, “High-performance fiber-laser-based terahertz spectrometer,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3799–3801 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

P. Balling, P. Křen, P. Mašika, and S. A. van den Berg, “Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air,” Opt. Express17(11), 9300–9313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Phys. Rev. B61(20), 14095–14107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

Akhavan, O.

O. Akhavan and E. Ghaderia, “Escherichia coli bacteria reduce graphene oxide to bactericidal graphene in a self-limiting manner,” Carbon50(5), 1853–1860 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benayad, A.

H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

S. Pei and H. Cheng, “The reduction of graphene oxide,” Carbon50(9), 3210–3228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Chhowalla, M.

K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eda, G.

K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Phys. Rev. B61(20), 14095–14107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

Y. Guo, X. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Wang, H. Qiu, and J. Gao, “One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation,” Carbon50(7), 2513–2523 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghaderia, E.

O. Akhavan and E. Ghaderia, “Escherichia coli bacteria reduce graphene oxide to bactericidal graphene in a self-limiting manner,” Carbon50(5), 1853–1860 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, X. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Wang, H. Qiu, and J. Gao, “One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation,” Carbon50(7), 2513–2523 (2012).
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Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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He, X. Y.

Hou, P.

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
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L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
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Huang, S. H.

Huang, Y.

H. Tien, Y. Huang, S. Yang, J. Wang, and C. M. Ma, “The production of graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles for use in transparent, conductive films,” Carbon49(5), 1550–1560 (2011).
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W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
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Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
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H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
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H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
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H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
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Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
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H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
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H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
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S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030508 (2009).
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Kuo, H. H.

Lee, J. H.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
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H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
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L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Li, X.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
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Lin, B.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
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Lin, S. C.

Lin, X. C.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
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S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030508 (2009).
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Liu, Y.

Y. Guo, X. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Wang, H. Qiu, and J. Gao, “One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation,” Carbon50(7), 2513–2523 (2012).
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X. He, Z. Liu, D. Wang, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, and X. Zhao, “Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide on Microfiber for Ultra-Wide-Band Doublet Pulse Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(7), 984–989 (2012).
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Liu, Z. B.

Loh, K.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
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K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C. M.

H. Tien, Y. Huang, S. Yang, J. Wang, and C. M. Ma, “The production of graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles for use in transparent, conductive films,” Carbon49(5), 1550–1560 (2011).
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N. Mamalis, “Femtosecond laser: the future of cataract surgery?” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1177–1178 (2011).
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Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
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W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
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H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
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S. Pei and H. Cheng, “The reduction of graphene oxide,” Carbon50(9), 3210–3228 (2012).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Guo, X. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Wang, H. Qiu, and J. Gao, “One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation,” Carbon50(7), 2513–2523 (2012).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Shin, H.

H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Song, Y.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Stehr, D.

Su, C. Y.

Sun, X.

Y. Guo, X. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Wang, H. Qiu, and J. Gao, “One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation,” Carbon50(7), 2513–2523 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. Tien, Y. Huang, S. Yang, J. Wang, and C. M. Ma, “The production of graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles for use in transparent, conductive films,” Carbon49(5), 1550–1560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Berg, S. A.

Wang, D.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Tien, Y. Huang, S. Yang, J. Wang, and C. M. Ma, “The production of graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles for use in transparent, conductive films,” Carbon49(5), 1550–1560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wang, W.

Y. Guo, X. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Wang, H. Qiu, and J. Gao, “One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation,” Carbon50(7), 2513–2523 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Wu, Y.

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

Y. Liu, X. Xie, and X.-Y. Ye, “High-concentration organic solutions of poly(styrene-cobutadiene-co-styrene)-modified graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite,” Carbon49(11), 3529–3537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Xu, J.

Yamashita, S.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, W.

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yang, Q.

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q. H.

Yang, S.

H. Tien, Y. Huang, S. Yang, J. Wang, and C. M. Ma, “The production of graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles for use in transparent, conductive films,” Carbon49(5), 1550–1560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, X.-Y.

Y. Liu, X. Xie, and X.-Y. Ye, “High-concentration organic solutions of poly(styrene-cobutadiene-co-styrene)-modified graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite,” Carbon49(11), 3529–3537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yoon, S.

H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. J.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. B.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

X. He, Z. Liu, D. Wang, M. Yang, C. R. Liao, and X. Zhao, “Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide on Microfiber for Ultra-Wide-Band Doublet Pulse Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(7), 984–989 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shin, K. Kim, A. Benayad, S. Yoon, H. Park, I. Jung, M. Jin, H. Jeong, J. Kim, J. Choi, and Y. Lee, “Efficient Reduction of Graphite Oxide by Sodium Borohydride and Its Effect on Electrical Conductance,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(12), 1987–1992 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Yang, W. Lv, Y. Wen, P. Hou, M. Wang, and H. Cheng, “Self-Assembled Free-Standing Graphite Oxide Membrane,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(29), 3007–3011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. Yan, Y. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carbon (5)

Y. Liu, X. Xie, and X.-Y. Ye, “High-concentration organic solutions of poly(styrene-cobutadiene-co-styrene)-modified graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite,” Carbon49(11), 3529–3537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, X. Sun, Y. Liu, W. Wang, H. Qiu, and J. Gao, “One pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or Au (Ag) nanoparticle-RGO hybrids using chitosan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their use in methanol electrooxidation,” Carbon50(7), 2513–2523 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Tien, Y. Huang, S. Yang, J. Wang, and C. M. Ma, “The production of graphene nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles for use in transparent, conductive films,” Carbon49(5), 1550–1560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Akhavan and E. Ghaderia, “Escherichia coli bacteria reduce graphene oxide to bactericidal graphene in a self-limiting manner,” Carbon50(5), 1853–1860 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Pei and H. Cheng, “The reduction of graphene oxide,” Carbon50(9), 3210–3228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-Assembled Graphene Membrane as an Ultrafast Mode-Locker in an Erbium Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Tang, J. Liu, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Developing compact multiphoton systems using femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 030508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

N. Mamalis, “Femtosecond laser: the future of cataract surgery?” J. Cataract Refract. Surg.37(7), 1177–1178 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High Power Passively Mode-Locked Nd:YVO4 Laser Using Graphene Oxide as a Saturable Absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res. (1)

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Chem. (1)

K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Phys. Rev. B61(20), 14095–14107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Jorio, M. Dresselhaus, R. Saito, and G. F. Dresselhaus, Raman Spectroscopy in Graphene Related Systems (Wiley-VCH, 2011).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Ed. (Academic Press, 2001).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the ½-inch fused silica windows with GO and rGO layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of GO (a) and reduced GO (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of GO (a) and reduced GO (b). Both Raman spectra were recorded with 514 nm laser line and with the low laser power (1 mW)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XPS spectra of GO and reduced GO

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

C 1s XPS spectra of (a) GO and (b) reduced GO.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM scan image of the GO (a) and rGO (b) surface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured linear transmission spectrum (a) and power-dependent transmission (b) of the GO and rGO

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup of the mode-locked laser.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the optical spectra with GO (red line) and RGO (blue line)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

RF spectra of the laser with GO (a) and rGO (b) recorded with 3 MHz span and 620 Hz RBW.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Autocorrelation traces of the 390 fs pulses obtained with GO (a) and rGO (b)

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 XPS data of GO

Tables Icon

Table 2 XPS data of rGO

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of the laser parameters with GO and rGO

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α(I)= α 0 1+ I I sat + α ns ,
N= γP τ 2 | β 2 | ,

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