Abstract

We propose a new method of measuring the electron density in plasma by high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of intense two-color femtosecond (fs) laser. As the 800 nm fundamental beam is introduced after its second harmonic generation (SHG) beam, the recovery of HHG by the fundamental pulses at a delay of ~40 ps indicates the decay time of the generated plasma. The electron-ion recombination rate and electron density decay are revealed by fitting the harmonic emission to the model that accounts for depletion of neutral atoms, phase mismatch and re-absorption of HHG.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. L. Formmhold, M. A. Biondi, and F. J. Mehr, “Electron–temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Neon,” Phys. Rev.165(1), 44–52 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. J. Mehr and M. A. Biondi, “Electron-temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Argon,” Phys. Rev.176(1), 322–326 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. M. Littlewood, M. C. Cornell, and K. J. Nygaard, “Electron-ion recombination in gas mixtures of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.81(3), 1264–1270 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Warman, E. S. Sennhauser, and D. A. Armstrong, “Three body electron-ion recombination in molecular gases,” J. Chem. Phys.70(2), 995–999 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. G. Xie, B. Luo, and D. Lo, “Electron-ion recombination in high pressure Ar/Xe mixtures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.24(13), 3077–3089 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun.181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 381–387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping molecular orbital symmetry on high-order harmonic generation spectrum using two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053003 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. L. Yudin and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A64(1), 013409 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Biondi, “Studies of the mechanism of electron-ion recombination. I,” Phys. Rev.129(3), 1181–1188 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Zhou, S. Akturk, B. Prade, Y. B. André, A. Houard, Y. Liu, M. Franco, C. D’Amico, E. Salmon, Z. Q. Hao, N. Lascoux, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Revival of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in air by a nanosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(14), 11450–11456 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping molecular orbital symmetry on high-order harmonic generation spectrum using two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2007

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

G. L. Yudin and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A64(1), 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun.181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. G. Xie, B. Luo, and D. Lo, “Electron-ion recombination in high pressure Ar/Xe mixtures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.24(13), 3077–3089 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

I. M. Littlewood, M. C. Cornell, and K. J. Nygaard, “Electron-ion recombination in gas mixtures of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.81(3), 1264–1270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. M. Warman, E. S. Sennhauser, and D. A. Armstrong, “Three body electron-ion recombination in molecular gases,” J. Chem. Phys.70(2), 995–999 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1968

L. Formmhold, M. A. Biondi, and F. J. Mehr, “Electron–temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Neon,” Phys. Rev.165(1), 44–52 (1968).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Mehr and M. A. Biondi, “Electron-temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Argon,” Phys. Rev.176(1), 322–326 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963

M. A. Biondi, “Studies of the mechanism of electron-ion recombination. I,” Phys. Rev.129(3), 1181–1188 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

Aleksandrov, N. L.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

André, Y. B.

Armstrong, D. A.

J. M. Warman, E. S. Sennhauser, and D. A. Armstrong, “Three body electron-ion recombination in molecular gases,” J. Chem. Phys.70(2), 995–999 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biondi, M. A.

F. J. Mehr and M. A. Biondi, “Electron-temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Argon,” Phys. Rev.176(1), 322–326 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. Formmhold, M. A. Biondi, and F. J. Mehr, “Electron–temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Neon,” Phys. Rev.165(1), 44–52 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, “Studies of the mechanism of electron-ion recombination. I,” Phys. Rev.129(3), 1181–1188 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping molecular orbital symmetry on high-order harmonic generation spectrum using two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cornell, M. C.

I. M. Littlewood, M. C. Cornell, and K. J. Nygaard, “Electron-ion recombination in gas mixtures of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.81(3), 1264–1270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

Deng, Y.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y. P.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z. L.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping molecular orbital symmetry on high-order harmonic generation spectrum using two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Formmhold, L.

L. Formmhold, M. A. Biondi, and F. J. Mehr, “Electron–temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Neon,” Phys. Rev.165(1), 44–52 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

B. Zhou, S. Akturk, B. Prade, Y. B. André, A. Houard, Y. Liu, M. Franco, C. D’Amico, E. Salmon, Z. Q. Hao, N. Lascoux, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Revival of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in air by a nanosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(14), 11450–11456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun.181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garzella, D.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Green, H.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z. Q.

B. Zhou, S. Akturk, B. Prade, Y. B. André, A. Houard, Y. Liu, M. Franco, C. D’Amico, E. Salmon, Z. Q. Hao, N. Lascoux, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Revival of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in air by a nanosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(14), 11450–11456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, R.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helml, W.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Yudin and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A64(1), 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kindysheva, S. V.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirpichnikov, A. A.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosarev, I. N.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lascoux, N.

Le Blanc, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, J.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. T.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ling, W. J.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Littlewood, I. M.

I. M. Littlewood, M. C. Cornell, and K. J. Nygaard, “Electron-ion recombination in gas mixtures of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.81(3), 1264–1270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. S.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lo, D.

J. G. Xie, B. Luo, and D. Lo, “Electron-ion recombination in high pressure Ar/Xe mixtures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.24(13), 3077–3089 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

J. G. Xie, B. Luo, and D. Lo, “Electron-ion recombination in high pressure Ar/Xe mixtures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.24(13), 3077–3089 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, G.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehr, F. J.

F. J. Mehr and M. A. Biondi, “Electron-temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Argon,” Phys. Rev.176(1), 322–326 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. Formmhold, M. A. Biondi, and F. J. Mehr, “Electron–temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Neon,” Phys. Rev.165(1), 44–52 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Zhou, S. Akturk, B. Prade, Y. B. André, A. Houard, Y. Liu, M. Franco, C. D’Amico, E. Salmon, Z. Q. Hao, N. Lascoux, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Revival of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in air by a nanosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(14), 11450–11456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun.181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, H.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping molecular orbital symmetry on high-order harmonic generation spectrum using two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nygaard, K. J.

I. M. Littlewood, M. C. Cornell, and K. J. Nygaard, “Electron-ion recombination in gas mixtures of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.81(3), 1264–1270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

B. Zhou, S. Akturk, B. Prade, Y. B. André, A. Houard, Y. Liu, M. Franco, C. D’Amico, E. Salmon, Z. Q. Hao, N. Lascoux, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Revival of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in air by a nanosecond laser,” Opt. Express17(14), 11450–11456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun.181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

Sennhauser, E. S.

J. M. Warman, E. S. Sennhauser, and D. A. Armstrong, “Three body electron-ion recombination in molecular gases,” J. Chem. Phys.70(2), 995–999 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, O.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Starikovskaia, S. M.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Starikovskii, A. Y.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strueder, L.

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobey, R.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun.181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping molecular orbital symmetry on high-order harmonic generation spectrum using two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Warman, J. M.

J. M. Warman, E. S. Sennhauser, and D. A. Armstrong, “Three body electron-ion recombination in molecular gases,” J. Chem. Phys.70(2), 995–999 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weiman, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, J. G.

J. G. Xie, B. Luo, and D. Lo, “Electron-ion recombination in high pressure Ar/Xe mixtures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.24(13), 3077–3089 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. H.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, X. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, G. L.

G. L. Yudin and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A64(1), 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Z. N.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

Appl. Phys. B

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

I. M. Littlewood, M. C. Cornell, and K. J. Nygaard, “Electron-ion recombination in gas mixtures of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.81(3), 1264–1270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Warman, E. S. Sennhauser, and D. A. Armstrong, “Three body electron-ion recombination in molecular gases,” J. Chem. Phys.70(2), 995–999 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

J. G. Xie, B. Luo, and D. Lo, “Electron-ion recombination in high pressure Ar/Xe mixtures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.24(13), 3077–3089 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. V. Kindysheva, A. A. Kirpichnikov, I. N. Kosarev, S. M. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Plasma decay in N2,CO2 and H2O excited by high-voltage nanosecond discharge,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(15), 4493–4502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys.2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature421(6918), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun.181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

M. A. Biondi, “Studies of the mechanism of electron-ion recombination. I,” Phys. Rev.129(3), 1181–1188 (1963).
[CrossRef]

L. Formmhold, M. A. Biondi, and F. J. Mehr, “Electron–temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Neon,” Phys. Rev.165(1), 44–52 (1968).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Mehr and M. A. Biondi, “Electron-temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination in Argon,” Phys. Rev.176(1), 322–326 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

G. L. Yudin and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A64(1), 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

J. S. Liu, Z. L. Duan, Z. N. Zeng, X. H. Xie, Y. P. Deng, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(2), 026412 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Niikura, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping molecular orbital symmetry on high-order harmonic generation spectrum using two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Marcus, W. Helml, X. Gu, Y. Deng, R. Hartmann, T. Kobayashi, L. Strueder, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond K-Shell Excitation with a Few-Cycle Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(2), 023201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the pump-probe HHG device. BBO: 1mm, type I. Lens group adjusting the focus position: f 1 = −1350 mm, f 2 = 3000 mm, f 3 = 5000 mm. The distance of f1 - f2 and f2 - f3 were 480 mm and 65 mm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-harmonic spectra under different time delays between two pulses. a: the IR pulse propagates before the blue pulse. The blue beam harmonics (BH) show no suppression. b: Strong even orders indicate that a good temporal and spatial overlap of the two beams is obtained. c-f: The leading blue pulse generates dense plasma and brings to the IR harmonics strong suppression, and as the delay time adds the suppression decreases because of plasma decay.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated electron densities ionized by an IR pulse and a blue pulse. The atoms are entirely ionized by the blue pulse but partially ionized (~5%) by the IR pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The calculated time-evolution of electron density. Insets: fitting of [E(t)/E0]2 for typical orders of H19-23.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n e (t)= n 0 /(1+β n 0 t),
E (t) 2 | q n a (t) 2 1+ e 2αL 2 e αL cos[Δ k q (t)L] α 2 +Δ k q (t) 2 ,
E(t) E 0 2 2 | q n a (t) 2 α 0 2 {1+ e 2αL 2 e αL cos[Δ k q (t)L]} n 0 2 [ α 2 +Δ k q (t) 2 ](1+ e 2 α 0 L 2 e α 0 L ) ,

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