Abstract

Optical frequency multicasting with significantly enhanced signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is demonstrated over wide wavelength range. High-fidelity multicasting relies on a four-mode phase-sensitive (PS) parametric process. Four-mode seeding was used to drive dual-pump, multistage mixer and achieve high-efficiency frequency comb generation and signal replication assisted by field interference. New PS mixer was measured to possess near 12-dB of spectrally uniform optical SNR advantage over conventional, phase-insensitive (PI) parametric multicaster. In signal attenuation regime, PS operation was measured with better than 10dB over the entire mixer band, indicating highly controllable PS interference. The role of the new PS mixer in near-noiseless signal replication is elaborated.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (4)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultra-low noise, broadband phase-sensitive amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 670–680 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3331–3344 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17610–17619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting via frequency comb generation in a bandwidth-enhanced fiber optical parametric mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(23), 3515–3522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

1997 (1)

J. A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, D. J. Lovering, P. Vidakovic, and C. Simonneau, “Quantum noise in optical parametric amplification: a means to achieve noiseless optical functions,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(2), 221–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3331–3344 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17610–17619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting via frequency comb generation in a bandwidth-enhanced fiber optical parametric mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(23), 3515–3522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultra-low noise, broadband phase-sensitive amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15426–15439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aparicio, J. M.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bencheikh, K.

J. A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, D. J. Lovering, P. Vidakovic, and C. Simonneau, “Quantum noise in optical parametric amplification: a means to achieve noiseless optical functions,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(2), 221–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultra-low noise, broadband phase-sensitive amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bres, C.-S.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brès, C.-S.

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Croussore, K.

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Devgan, P. S.

Ellis, A. D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grigoryan, V.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultra-low noise, broadband phase-sensitive amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15426–15439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, and Z. Tong, “Field-quadrature and photon-number correlations produced by parametric processes,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19792–19823 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

Kumar, P.

Kuo, B. P. P.

Lasri, J.

Levenson, J. A.

J. A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, D. J. Lovering, P. Vidakovic, and C. Simonneau, “Quantum noise in optical parametric amplification: a means to achieve noiseless optical functions,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(2), 221–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Lovering, D. J.

J. A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, D. J. Lovering, P. Vidakovic, and C. Simonneau, “Quantum noise in optical parametric amplification: a means to achieve noiseless optical functions,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(2), 221–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultra-low noise, broadband phase-sensitive amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15426–15439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

Moro, S.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Myslivets, E.

O'Gorman, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petropoulos, P.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelan, R.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 670–680 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3331–3344 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17610–17619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting via frequency comb generation in a bandwidth-enhanced fiber optical parametric mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(23), 3515–3522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. J. van Enk, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Multicolor multipartite entanglement produced by vector four-wave mixing in a fiber,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2720–2739 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and M. G. Raymer, “Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5037–5066 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie and S. Radic, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a fiber,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4973–4979 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonneau, C.

J. A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, D. J. Lovering, P. Vidakovic, and C. Simonneau, “Quantum noise in optical parametric amplification: a means to achieve noiseless optical functions,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(2), 221–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sjödin, M.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sygletos, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, R.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultra-low noise, broadband phase-sensitive amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17610–17619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lundström, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-to-phase and phase-to-amplitude transfer characteristics of a nondegenerate-idler phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4356–4358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, and Z. Tong, “Field-quadrature and photon-number correlations produced by parametric processes,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19792–19823 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15426–15439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of afiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Enk, S. J.

Vasilyev, M.

Vidakovic, P.

J. A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, D. J. Lovering, P. Vidakovic, and C. Simonneau, “Quantum noise in optical parametric amplification: a means to achieve noiseless optical functions,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(2), 221–237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weerasuriya, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wiberg, A. O. J.

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17610–17619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultra-low noise, broadband phase-sensitive amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 670–680 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (3)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Multilevel quantization of optical phase in a novel coherent parametric mixer architecture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 748–752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and M. G. Raymer, “Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5037–5066 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vasilyev, “Distributed phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7563–7571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tang, J. Lasri, P. S. Devgan, V. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, and M. Vasilyev, “Gain characteristics of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive fiber-optic parametric amplifier with phase self-stabilized input,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10483–10493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. J. van Enk, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Multicolor multipartite entanglement produced by vector four-wave mixing in a fiber,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2720–2739 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Input schematics of (a) one-mode, (b) two-mode, and (c) four-mode phase-sensitive processes. MI: modulation instability, PC: phase conjugation, BS: Bragg scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concept of two-pump seeded broadband multicasting [21] relying on (a) phase-insensitive and (b) four-mode phase-sensitive processes. DF-HNLF: dispersion flattened highly-nonlinear-fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated output spectra of an example broadband parametric multicaster with (a) PI input, (b) 4-mode (power equalized) PS input possessing maximum CE (PS amplification) and (c) minimum CE (PS de-amplification, 90-degree phase shift for all input sidebands). Insets show zoomed-in spectra of Figs. (a)–(c). Calculated CE spectra under three different conditions are shown in (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. LD: laser diode, PC: polarization controller, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, PM: phase modulator, PS: phase shifter, OP: optical processor, TDL: tunable delay line, WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Output spectrum of the phase-modulated comb at point 'A', as marked in Fig. 4, and input spectra of (b) the phase-insensitive, (c) the two-mode phase-sensitive, and (d) the four-mode phase-sensitive multicasters at point 'B'. Each pump power was 100-mW in Figs. (b)–(d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured output spectra of (a) the phase-insensitive, (b) the two-mode phase-sensitive, (c) the four-mode amplification, and (d) the four-mode de-amplification processes in the multicasting setup. The shadowed part in each figure corresponds to output copies surrounding the pumps.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) High resolution spectra subset for different cases, and (b) measured conversion efficiency of each copy for different input schemes.

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