Abstract

Coupling nanoscale emitters via optical antennas enables comprehensive control of photon emission in terms of intensity, directivity and polarization. In this work we report highly directional emission of circularly polarized photons from quantum dots coupled to a spiral optical antenna. The structural chirality of the spiral antenna imprints spin state to the emitted photons. Experimental results reveal that a circular polarization extinction ratio of 10 is obtainable. Furthermore, increasing the number of turns of the spiral gives rise to higher antenna gain and directivity, leading to higher field intensity and narrower angular width of emission pattern in the far field. For a five-turn Archimedes’ spiral antenna, field intensity increase up to 70-fold simultaneously with antenna directivity of 11.7 dB has been measured in the experiment. The highly directional circularly polarized photon emission from such optically coupled spiral antenna may find important applications in single molecule sensing, quantum optics information processing and integrated photonic circuits as a nanoscale spin photon source.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2400–2406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Experimental evidence of plasmophores: plasmon-directed polarized emission from gold nanorod-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2296–2303 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rui, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Circularly polarized unidirectional emission via a coupled plasmonic spiral antenna,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4533–4535 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda Antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2400–2406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Experimental evidence of plasmophores: plasmon-directed polarized emission from gold nanorod-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2296–2303 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2400–2406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dulkeith, E.

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2400–2406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructure,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

Guo, B.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda Antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda Antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalim, S.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda Antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructure,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Q.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Experimental evidence of plasmophores: plasmon-directed polarized emission from gold nanorod-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2296–2303 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahboub, O.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2400–2406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, T.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Experimental evidence of plasmophores: plasmon-directed polarized emission from gold nanorod-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2296–2303 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. L.

Osgood, R. M.

Ota, S.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2400–2406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rui, G.

Ryu, J.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teitell, M. A.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Experimental evidence of plasmophores: plasmon-directed polarized emission from gold nanorod-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2296–2303 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenger, J.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Plasmonic antennas for directional sorting of fluorescence emission,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2400–2406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, K. C.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Experimental evidence of plasmophores: plasmon-directed polarized emission from gold nanorod-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2296–2303 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Zhang, X.

S. Wang, S. Ota, B. Guo, J. Ryu, C. Rhodes, Y. Xiong, S. Kalim, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, M. A. Teitell, and X. Zhang, “Subcellular resolution mapping of endogenous cytokine secretion by nano-plasmonic-resonator sensor array,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3431–3434 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Experimental evidence of plasmophores: plasmon-directed polarized emission from gold nanorod-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2296–2303 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plasmonic spiral antenna for the control of the photon emission from quantum dots in solution. (a) Diagram of the proposed spiral antenna structure. (b) Experimental configuration. (c) Radially polarized beam pattern generated at the end of the fiber, and pictures of the beam after it passes through a linear analyzer oriented at different angles shown by the arrows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence intensity distributions in the back focal plane of a 0.8 NA objective lens. (a) Emission pattern for the case of no spiral structure. Please note that the intensity of this image has been magnified by a factor of five to show the field distribution clearly. (b)–(f), Emission patterns for a RHS structure with an increasing number of turns from 1 to 5. SEM pictures of the spiral antennas are shown as the insets. The intensities in (a), (b), (c) and (d) are multiplied by a factor to ease viewing the figures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line-scans through the center of the emission patterns in the far field along x- and y- axes. Line-scans in the (a, c) x-z plane and (b, d) y-z plane from simulation and experimental results respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Method for measuring the circular polarization extinction ratio of the emission. The right pictures show the radiated emissions filtering by (a) a RHC polarizer and (b) a LHC polarizer that is composed of a quarter-wave plate and a linear polarizer. The insets show the linescan through the center. Please note that the intensity in (b) has been multiplied by a factor of 5 in order to obtain a clear image. (c) Linescan of circular polarization extinction ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Influence of illumination with transverse polarization. (a) Linearly (x-) polarized Gaussian beam pattern generated at the end of the fiber. (b) Simulated electric field intensity distribution in the far field. (c) Emission patterns from experimental results. The intensity has been multiplied by a factor of 5 in order to obtain a clear image.

Equations (1)

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r= r 0 + Λ 2π φ,

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