Abstract

The physical mechanism for sensing broadband terahertz (THz) wave via using femtosecond (fs) laser induced gas plasma without any local accessory near the plasma, i.e. THz air breakdown coherent detection, is systemically investigated by utilizing the transient photocurrent model. Previous observed results, such as conversion from incoherent to coherent detection, can be numerically obtained. Further calculations and analysis show that it is through modification of the gas ionization process, and not acceleration of freed electrons or through a four-wave-mixing (FWM) process, that the THz waveforms can be encoded into the detected second harmonic (SH) signals.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. B. Clough, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Laser air photonics: beyond the terahertz gap,” Mater. Today15(1-2), 50–58 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 183–190 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(10), 103903 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasmas16(5), 056706 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X. Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(4), 046406 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.309(3-4), 221–228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 627–631 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. L. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(23), 235002 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62(11), 1259–1262 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

B. Clough, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Laser air photonics: beyond the terahertz gap,” Mater. Today15(1-2), 50–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. L. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(23), 235002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasmas16(5), 056706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X. Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(4), 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express15(8), 4577–4584 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=131706 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.309(3-4), 221–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62(11), 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babushkin, I.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62(11), 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62(11), 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. X.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.309(3-4), 221–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X. Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(4), 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clough, B.

B. Clough, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Laser air photonics: beyond the terahertz gap,” Mater. Today15(1-2), 50–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.309(3-4), 221–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62(11), 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

B. Clough, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Laser air photonics: beyond the terahertz gap,” Mater. Today15(1-2), 50–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Herrmann, J.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.309(3-4), 221–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Köhler, C.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, W.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. L.

J. L. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(23), 235002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morlino, E. A.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.309(3-4), 221–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X. Y.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X. Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(4), 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pukhov, A.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X. Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(4), 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willi, O.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X. Y. Peng, and O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(4), 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Clough, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Laser air photonics: beyond the terahertz gap,” Mater. Today15(1-2), 50–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Liu and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz-radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence from gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(23), 235002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(1), 183–190 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 627–631 (2010).
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H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, “Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043001 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of THz ABCD: a probe laser pulse with center frequency ω 0 and THz pulse with delay Δt are focused into gas medium. The SH emission with THz information from plasma can be collected by lens and a 2 ω 0 narrow band filter, and then detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The real incident THz waveform and spectrum (inset), (b) calculated SH signal waveforms at different probe energies.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The plasma density (blue line) at the focus point and the peak SH signal (red line) versus probe pulse energy W .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radiation spectrum of plasma emission at different probe energies: (a) W=30μJ and (b) W=200μJ .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a): Schematic diagrams of the relation between monochromatic laser ( ω 0 ) and THz filed; different TDPD induced by single probe laser pulse and that with THz and reversed THz at different probe pulse energies W , (b) 30μJ , (b) 100μJ and (c) 200μJ .

Equations (1)

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E out (t) dJ(t) dt = 4 e 2 w 0 3 3m E in (t) N e (t),

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