Abstract

We report the improved performance of InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through Ag reflectors combined with a Zn middle layer. It is shown that the Zn middle layer (5 nm thick) suppresses the agglomeration of Ag reflectors by forming ZnO and dissolving into Ag. The Ag/Zn/Ag contacts show a specific contact resistance of 6.2 × 10−5 Ωcm2 and reflectance of ~83% at a wavelength of 440 nm when annealed at 500 °C, which are much better than those of Ag only contacts. Blue LEDs fabricated with the 500 °C-annealed Ag/Zn/Ag reflectors show a forward voltage of 2.98 V at an injection current of 20 mA, which is lower than that (3.02 V) of LEDs with the annealed Ag only contacts. LEDs with the 500 °C-annealed Ag/Zn/Ag contacts exhibit 34% higher output power (at 20 mA) than LEDs with the annealed Ag only contacts.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. W. Jang and J.-L. Lee, “Mechanism for ohmic contact formation of Ni/Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5920–5922 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-O. Song, J.-S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-Y. Jung, Y.-H. Kim, Y. S. Kong, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improved electrical and thermal properties of Ag contacts for GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by using a NiZn alloy capping layer,” Superlattices Microstruct.46(4), 578–584 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Highly reflective Ag-Cu alloy-based ohmic contact on p-type GaN using Ru overlayer,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2907–2909 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic and degradation mechanisms of Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. B. Massalski, H. Okamoto, P. R. Subramanian, and L. Kacprzak, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd ed. (ASM International, Materials Park, Oh, 117, 1990).
  17. V. M. Bermudez, D. D. Koleske, and A. E. Wickenden, “The dependence of the structure and electronic properties of wurtzite GaN surfaces on the method of preparation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.126(1–2), 69–82 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of light reflectance and thermal stability in Ag–Cu alloy contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 012102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J.-P. Crocombette, H. de Monestrol, and F. Willaime, “Oxygen and vacancies in silver: A density-functional study in the local density and generalized gradient approximations,” Phys. Rev. B66(2), 024114 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Mg additive on inhibition of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.13(6), H173–H175 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Mg additive on inhibition of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.13(6), H173–H175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S.-Y. Jung, Y.-H. Kim, Y. S. Kong, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improved electrical and thermal properties of Ag contacts for GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by using a NiZn alloy capping layer,” Superlattices Microstruct.46(4), 578–584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of light reflectance and thermal stability in Ag–Cu alloy contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 012102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Highly reflective Ag-Cu alloy-based ohmic contact on p-type GaN using Ru overlayer,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2907–2909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J.-O. Song, J.-S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic and degradation mechanisms of Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. W. Jang and J.-L. Lee, “Mechanism for ohmic contact formation of Ni/Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5920–5922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J.-P. Crocombette, H. de Monestrol, and F. Willaime, “Oxygen and vacancies in silver: A density-functional study in the local density and generalized gradient approximations,” Phys. Rev. B66(2), 024114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. M. Bermudez, D. D. Koleske, and A. E. Wickenden, “The dependence of the structure and electronic properties of wurtzite GaN surfaces on the method of preparation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.126(1–2), 69–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Angerer, H.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bermudez, V. M.

V. M. Bermudez, D. D. Koleske, and A. E. Wickenden, “The dependence of the structure and electronic properties of wurtzite GaN surfaces on the method of preparation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.126(1–2), 69–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.-C.

I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, I.-C.

I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-D.

I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. S.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-F.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J.-T.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crocombette, J.-P.

J.-P. Crocombette, H. de Monestrol, and F. Willaime, “Oxygen and vacancies in silver: A density-functional study in the local density and generalized gradient approximations,” Phys. Rev. B66(2), 024114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dahlheimer, B.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. F.

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Monestrol, H.

J.-P. Crocombette, H. de Monestrol, and F. Willaime, “Oxygen and vacancies in silver: A density-functional study in the local density and generalized gradient approximations,” Phys. Rev. B66(2), 024114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Einfeldt, S.

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Groos, G.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hartlieb, P. J.

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hibbard, D. L.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-C.

I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-W.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hurt, E. H.

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. W.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Jang and J.-L. Lee, “Mechanism for ohmic contact formation of Ni/Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5920–5922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.-H.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. H.

Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Mg additive on inhibition of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.13(6), H173–H175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of light reflectance and thermal stability in Ag–Cu alloy contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 012102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Highly reflective Ag-Cu alloy-based ohmic contact on p-type GaN using Ru overlayer,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2907–2909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, S. P.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Jung, Y.-H. Kim, Y. S. Kong, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improved electrical and thermal properties of Ag contacts for GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by using a NiZn alloy capping layer,” Superlattices Microstruct.46(4), 578–584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M. K.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-H.

S.-Y. Jung, Y.-H. Kim, Y. S. Kong, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improved electrical and thermal properties of Ag contacts for GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by using a NiZn alloy capping layer,” Superlattices Microstruct.46(4), 578–584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

V. M. Bermudez, D. D. Koleske, and A. E. Wickenden, “The dependence of the structure and electronic properties of wurtzite GaN surfaces on the method of preparation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.126(1–2), 69–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y. S.

S.-Y. Jung, Y.-H. Kim, Y. S. Kong, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improved electrical and thermal properties of Ag contacts for GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by using a NiZn alloy capping layer,” Superlattices Microstruct.46(4), 578–584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-H.

I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic and degradation mechanisms of Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J.-S.

J.-O. Song, J.-S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. L.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-L.

Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Mg additive on inhibition of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.13(6), H173–H175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of light reflectance and thermal stability in Ag–Cu alloy contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 012102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Highly reflective Ag-Cu alloy-based ohmic contact on p-type GaN using Ru overlayer,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2907–2909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Jang and J.-L. Lee, “Mechanism for ohmic contact formation of Ni/Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5920–5922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leem, D.-S.

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.-D.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-C.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O. H.

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemanich, R. J.

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, T.-H.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic and degradation mechanisms of Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. W.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T.-Y.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Jung, Y.-H. Kim, Y. S. Kong, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improved electrical and thermal properties of Ag contacts for GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by using a NiZn alloy capping layer,” Superlattices Microstruct.46(4), 578–584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, J.-S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic and degradation mechanisms of Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

So, W.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Mg additive on inhibition of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.13(6), H173–H175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Highly reflective Ag-Cu alloy-based ohmic contact on p-type GaN using Ru overlayer,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2907–2909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of light reflectance and thermal stability in Ag–Cu alloy contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 012102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-O.

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, J.-S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic and degradation mechanisms of Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Mg additive on inhibition of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.13(6), H173–H175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, K. M.

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ullery, D.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-C.

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wickenden, A. E.

V. M. Bermudez, D. D. Koleske, and A. E. Wickenden, “The dependence of the structure and electronic properties of wurtzite GaN surfaces on the method of preparation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.126(1–2), 69–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willaime, F.

J.-P. Crocombette, H. de Monestrol, and F. Willaime, “Oxygen and vacancies in silver: A density-functional study in the local density and generalized gradient approximations,” Phys. Rev. B66(2), 024114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. K.

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. S.

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, H. Angerer, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical patterning of GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(12), 1749–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Jang and J.-L. Lee, “Mechanism for ohmic contact formation of Ni/Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5920–5922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Hibbard, S. P. Jung, C. Wang, D. Ullery, Y. S. Zhao, H. P. Lee, W. So, and H. Liu, “Low resistance high reflectance contacts to p-GaN using oxidized Ni/Au and Al or Ag,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(2), 311–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, D.-S. Leem, J. S. Kwak, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Low-resistance and highly-reflective Zn–Ni solid solution/Ag ohmic contacts for flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4990–4992 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, J.-S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Cu-doped indium oxide/Ag ohmic contacts for high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-O. Song, J. S. Kwak, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic and degradation mechanisms of Ag contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 062104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of light reflectance and thermal stability in Ag–Cu alloy contacts on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 012102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. M. Bermudez, D. D. Koleske, and A. E. Wickenden, “The dependence of the structure and electronic properties of wurtzite GaN surfaces on the method of preparation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.126(1–2), 69–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, G. H. Jung, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Mg additive on inhibition of Ag agglomeration in Ag-based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.13(6), H173–H175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. M. Tracy, P. J. Hartlieb, S. Einfeldt, R. F. Davis, E. H. Hurt, and R. J. Nemanich, “Electrical and chemical characterization of the Schottky barrier formed between clean n-GaN(0001) surfaces and Pt, Au, and Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3939–3948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

I.-C. Chen, Y.-D. Chen, C.-C. Hsieh, C.-H. Kuo, and L.-C. Chang, “Highly Reflective Ag/La Bilayer Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(3), H285–H288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Kao, H.-W. Huang, W.-D. Liang, C.-F. Chu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Effects of Different n-Electrode Patterns on Optical Characteristics of Large-Area p-Side-Down InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(11), 7910–7912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. W. Jang, S. W. Ryu, H. K. Yu, S. Lee, and J. L. Lee, “The role of reflective p-contacts in the enhancement of light extraction in nanotextured vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(2), 025203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J.-P. Crocombette, H. de Monestrol, and F. Willaime, “Oxygen and vacancies in silver: A density-functional study in the local density and generalized gradient approximations,” Phys. Rev. B66(2), 024114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H.-H. Jeong, H. S. Choi, T.-H. Oh, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Wafer-level fabrication of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes using a multi-functional bonding material system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24(9), 092001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

S.-Y. Jung, Y.-H. Kim, Y. S. Kong, and T.-Y. Seong, “Improved electrical and thermal properties of Ag contacts for GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by using a NiZn alloy capping layer,” Superlattices Microstruct.46(4), 578–584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. B. Massalski, H. Okamoto, P. R. Subramanian, and L. Kacprzak, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd ed. (ASM International, Materials Park, Oh, 117, 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical I-V characteristics of Ag only (200 nm) and Ag(100 nm)/Zn(5 nm)/Ag(100 nm) contacts before and after annealing at temperatures of 300 and 500 °C. Reflectance of Ag only and Ag/Zn/Ag contacts before and after annealing at 300 and 500 °C is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical I-V characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs fabricated with Ag only and Ag/Zn/Ag contacts before and after annealing at 500 °C. Light output-current characteristics of LEDs fabricated with Ag only and Ag/Zn/Ag contacts are shown in the inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission images (at 0.2 mA) obtained from LEDs fabricated with (a) Ag only and (b) Ag/Zn/Ag reflectors annealed at 500 °C. Their SEM images are shown in the insets (top right). The scale bar in the inset denotes 5 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XPS Ga 2p core level spectra obtained from Ag/Zn/Ag contacts on p-GaN (a) before and (b) after annealing at 500 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XPS depth profiles obtained from Ag/Zn/Ag contacts on p-GaN (a) before and (b) after annealing at 500 °C.

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