Abstract

The material and processing costs are still the major drawbacks of the c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology. The wafer cost comprises up to 35-40% of the total module cost. New approaches and system designs are needed in order to reduce the share of the wafer cost in photovoltaic energy systems. Here we explore the horizontally staggered light guide solar optics for use in Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) applications. This optical system comprises a lens array system coupled to a horizontal light guide which directs the incoming light beam to its edge. We have designed and simulated this system using a commercial ray tracing software (Zemax). The system is more compact, thinner and more robust compared to the conventional CPV systems. Concentration levels as high as 1000x can easily be reached when the system is properly designed. With such a high concentration level, a good acceptance angle of + −1 degree is still be conserved. The analysis of the system reveals that the total optical efficiency of the system could be as high as %94.4 without any anti-reflection (AR) coating. Optical losses can be reduced by just accommodating a single layer AR coating on the initial lens array leading to a %96.5 optical efficiency. Thermal behavior of high concentration linear concentrator is also discussed and compared with a conventional point focus CPV system.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III–V cells,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Jaus, G. Peharz, A. Gombert, J. P. F. Rodriguez, F. Dimroth, F. Eltermann, O. Wolf, M. Passig, G. Siefer, A. Hakenjos, S. v. Riesen, and A. W. Bett, “ Development of Flatcon® modules using secondary optics,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 34th IEEE (2009), 1931 - 1936.
  3. J. H. Karp and J. E. Ford, “Planar micro-optic solar concentration using multiple imaging lenses into a common slab waveguide,” Proc. SPIE7407, 74070D (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Karp, E. J. Tremblay, and J. E. Ford, “Planar micro-optic solar concentrator,” Opt. Express18(2), 1122–1133 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).
  6. S. Ghosh and D. S. Schultz, “Compact optics for concentration, aggregation and illumination of light energy,” Banyan Energy Inc., World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2009/035986, 19 (2009).
  7. J. H. Karp, E. J. Tremblay, J. M. Hallas, and J. E. Ford, “Orthogonal and secondary concentration in planar micro-optic solar collectors,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A673–A685 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Moore, G. R. Schmidt, and B. Unger, “Concentrated photovoltaic stepped planar light guide,” in International Optical Design Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2010), paper JMB46P.
  9. A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, and J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proceedings of the 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition - EU PVSEC, (Valencia, Spain, 2010), 176–181.
  10. C. Algora, “Determination of the optimum solar cell size” in Concentrator Photovoltaics (Springer, 2007), Chap. 5.

2011

2010

J. H. Karp, E. J. Tremblay, and J. E. Ford, “Planar micro-optic solar concentrator,” Opt. Express18(2), 1122–1133 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).

2009

S. Ghosh and D. S. Schultz, “Compact optics for concentration, aggregation and illumination of light energy,” Banyan Energy Inc., World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2009/035986, 19 (2009).

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III–V cells,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Karp and J. E. Ford, “Planar micro-optic solar concentration using multiple imaging lenses into a common slab waveguide,” Proc. SPIE7407, 74070D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anton, J. C. M.

J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).

Bernal-Agustin, J. L.

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III–V cells,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caparros, S. J.

J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).

Ford, J. E.

Fracastoro, G. V.

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III–V cells,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh and D. S. Schultz, “Compact optics for concentration, aggregation and illumination of light energy,” Banyan Energy Inc., World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2009/035986, 19 (2009).

Hallas, J. M.

Karp, J. H.

Ligero, O. P.

J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).

Martinez, E. B.

J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).

Molini, D. V.

J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).

Schultz, D. S.

S. Ghosh and D. S. Schultz, “Compact optics for concentration, aggregation and illumination of light energy,” Banyan Energy Inc., World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2009/035986, 19 (2009).

Tremblay, E. J.

Zubi, G.

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III–V cells,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

J. H. Karp and J. E. Ford, “Planar micro-optic solar concentration using multiple imaging lenses into a common slab waveguide,” Proc. SPIE7407, 74070D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.

G. Zubi, J. L. Bernal-Agustin, and G. V. Fracastoro, “High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III–V cells,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.13(9), 2645–2652 (2009).
[CrossRef]

World Intellectual Property Organization, WO

J. C. M. Anton, O. P. Ligero, D. V. Molini, E. B. Martinez, and S. J. Caparros, “Light collection and concentration system,” Abengoa Solar New Technologies S.A, World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2010/056405, 20 (2010).

S. Ghosh and D. S. Schultz, “Compact optics for concentration, aggregation and illumination of light energy,” Banyan Energy Inc., World Intellectual Property Organization, WO2009/035986, 19 (2009).

Other

J. Jaus, G. Peharz, A. Gombert, J. P. F. Rodriguez, F. Dimroth, F. Eltermann, O. Wolf, M. Passig, G. Siefer, A. Hakenjos, S. v. Riesen, and A. W. Bett, “ Development of Flatcon® modules using secondary optics,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 34th IEEE (2009), 1931 - 1936.

D. Moore, G. R. Schmidt, and B. Unger, “Concentrated photovoltaic stepped planar light guide,” in International Optical Design Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2010), paper JMB46P.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, and J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proceedings of the 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition - EU PVSEC, (Valencia, Spain, 2010), 176–181.

C. Algora, “Determination of the optimum solar cell size” in Concentrator Photovoltaics (Springer, 2007), Chap. 5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Solar concentrator that using light guide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Primary concentrator array, (a) Rectangular grid of focal points, (b) Lens array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Horizontally staggered light guide (a) Light guide collects light from different lenses. (b) Stepped structure of the light guide (top view).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Side cutting of light guides (a) Side cutting makes the exit port smaller and gives extra concentration. (b) Side cutting can postpone overlapping of adjacent light guides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

End region of the light guide with a CPC type extra concentration element.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross sectional view of the concentrator.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top view of the light guide with a single side cut extra concentration surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission efficiency vs. tilt angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Thermal simulation results of point focus and line focus systems.

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