Abstract

One of the limits of conventional scanning multiphoton microfabrication is its low throughput due to point-by-point processing. In order to surpass this limit, a multiphoton microfabrication system based on spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation has been developed to quickly provide three-dimensional (3D) freeform polymer microstructures. 3D freeform polymer microstructures using Rose Bengal as the photoinitiator are created by sequentially stacking two-dimensional fabricating patterns. The size of each fabrication area can be larger than 300 × 170 μm2 (full width at half maximum). Compared to conventional scanning multiphoton excitation and fixed mask pattern generation, this approach offers freeform microstructures and a greater than three-order increase in fabrication speed. Furthermore, the system is capable of optically sectioning the fabricated microstructures for providing 3D inspection.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

S. Hasegawa and Y. Hayasaki, “Adaptive optimization of a hologram in holographic femtosecond laser processing system,” Opt. Lett.34(1), 22–24 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. Stoneman, M. Fox, C. Y. Zeng, and V. Raicu, “Real-time monitoring of two-photon photopolymerization for use in fabrication of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip9(6), 819–827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2002 (3)

C. E. Olson, M. J. R. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, D. E.

Akiyama, M.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anselmi, F.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubé, B.

Backus, S.

Bègue, A.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, K.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lien, K.-C. Cho, C.-Y. Chang, N.-S. Chang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Investigation of two-photon excited fluorescence increment via crosslinked bovine serum albumin,” Opt. Express20(13), 13669–13676 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chang, C.-Y.

Chang, N.-S.

Chen, S.-J.

Chen, W. Q.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.-C.

Cheng, W. C.

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Cho, K.-C.

Côté, D.

de Sars, V.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delguidice, D. M.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

Dong, X. Z.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, M.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, B.

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Durst, M.

Durst, M. E.

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emiliani, V.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epling, G. A.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fourkas, J. T.

C. E. Olson, M. J. R. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, M.

M. Stoneman, M. Fox, C. Y. Zeng, and V. Raicu, “Real-time monitoring of two-photon photopolymerization for use in fabrication of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip9(6), 819–827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glückstad, J.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, S. L.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

R. Guo, Z. Li, Z. Jiang, D. Yuan, W. Huang, and A. Xia, “Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), 396–399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, S.

Hayasaki, Y.

He, F.

Hoffacker, K. D.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Howell, A. R.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

R. Guo, Z. Li, Z. Jiang, D. Yuan, W. Huang, and A. Xia, “Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), 396–399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Isacoff, E. Y.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

R. Guo, Z. Li, Z. Jiang, D. Yuan, W. Huang, and A. Xia, “Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), 396–399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, A.

Juodkazis, S.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, T.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

Kleinfeld, D.

Kochevar, I. E.

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koninck, P. D.

Kuebler, S. M.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, C. R.

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

R. Guo, Z. Li, Z. Jiang, D. Yuan, W. Huang, and A. Xia, “Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), 396–399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lien, C.-H.

Lin, C.-Y.

Marder, S. R.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martini, I. B.

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Misawa, H.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

Olson, C. E.

C. E. Olson, M. J. R. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

Pagès, S.

Papagiakoumou, E.

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. D.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Previte, M. J. R.

C. E. Olson, M. J. R. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raicu, V.

M. Stoneman, M. Fox, C. Y. Zeng, and V. Raicu, “Real-time monitoring of two-photon photopolymerization for use in fabrication of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip9(6), 819–827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redmond, R. W.

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shroff, H.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

So, P. T. C.

Squier, J. A.

Stellacci, F.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoneman, M.

M. Stoneman, M. Fox, C. Y. Zeng, and V. Raicu, “Real-time monitoring of two-photon photopolymerization for use in fabrication of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip9(6), 819–827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H. B.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z. B.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeyasu, N.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Tal, E.

Tanaka, T.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Therrien, O. D.

Totani, K.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, P. S.

van Howe, J.

Vaziri, A.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitek, D. N.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenseleers, W.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P. W.

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, A.

R. Guo, Z. Li, Z. Jiang, D. Yuan, W. Huang, and A. Xia, “Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), 396–399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, H.

Xu, C.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Yablonovitch, E.

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W.-C.

Yuan, D.

R. Guo, Z. Li, Z. Jiang, D. Yuan, W. Huang, and A. Xia, “Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), 396–399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, C. Y.

M. Stoneman, M. Fox, C. Y. Zeng, and V. Raicu, “Real-time monitoring of two-photon photopolymerization for use in fabrication of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip9(6), 819–827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express13(6), 2153–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater.12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Wu, W. C. Cheng, I. B. Martini, B. Dunn, B. J. Schwartz, and E. Yablonovitch, “Two-photon photographic production of three-dimensional metallic structures within a dielectric matrix,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(19), 1438–1441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, S. Nakanishi, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.86(4), 427–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. Guo, Z. Li, Z. Jiang, D. Yuan, W. Huang, and A. Xia, “Log-pile photonic crystal fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), 396–399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

M. Stoneman, M. Fox, C. Y. Zeng, and V. Raicu, “Real-time monitoring of two-photon photopolymerization for use in fabrication of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip9(6), 819–827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromolecules (2)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

C. E. Olson, M. J. R. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bègue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad, E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, “Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2,” Nat. Methods7(10), 848–854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

C.-Y. Chang, L.-C. Cheng, H.-W. Su, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Widefield multiphoton microscopy with image-based adaptive optics system,” submitted for publication.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (1434 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1450 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of the high-throughput multiphoton microfabrication system based on spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized TPEF intensities of fabricated solution as a function of different gray levels of the DMD. (b) Bright-field images of 5 different sizes of TMPTA polymer microstructures with the use of three different laser powers at 12.2 mW, 8.7 mW, and 5.2 mW (from top to bottom) corresponding to the minimum demanded gray levels, respectively. Sizes of the fabricated squares are respectively 42 μm, 33 μm, 23 μm, 14 μm, and 8 μm (from left to right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bright-field images and profiles of three stripes fabricated with pixel numbers of (a) 35, (b) 20, and (c) 5, respectively. The corresponding widths of the stripes are 3.8 μm, 1.6 μm, and 1 μm, respectively. The profiles correspond to the red dotted line in the bright-field images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TPEF images of different size microstructures created by different magnifications of the objective lenses at (a) 40X, (b) 20X, and (c) 10X. The heights of three structures are all 30 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D renderings of the TPEF images of the excitation patterns during the high-throughput microfabrication process: (a) pyramid structure and (b) multiple objects (triangle, star, rectangle, and circle) with different heights. Inset: 2D front-view bright-field images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D renderings of the TPEF images of the fabricated microstructures in Fig. 5(b) after washing the remaining solution using: (a) typical scanning multiphoton microscope (Media 1), and (b) multiphoton microfabrication system with only the widefield microscopy function (Media 2).

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