Abstract

Single-mode plasmonic waveguiding properties of metal nanowires with dielectric substrates are investigated using a finite-element method. Au and Ag are selected as plasmonic materials for nanowire waveguides with diameters down to 5-nm-level. Typical dielectric materials with relatively low to high refractive indices, including magnesium fluoride (MgF2), silica (SiO2), indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), are used as supporting substrates. Basic waveguiding properties, including propagation constants, power distributions, effective mode areas, propagation distances and losses are obtained at the typical plasmonic resonance wavelength of 660 nm. Compared to that of a freestanding nanowire, the mode area of a substrate-supported nanowire could be much smaller while maintaining an acceptable propagation length. For example, the mode area and propagation length of a 100-nm-diameter Ag nanowire with a MgF2 substrate are about 0.004 μm2 and 3.4 μm, respectively. The dependences of waveguiding properties on geometric and material parameters of the nanowire-substrate system are also provided. Our results may provide valuable references for waveguiding dielectric-supported metal nanowires for practical applications.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4566–4570 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum plasmonics: optical properties and tunability of metallic nanorods,” ACS Nano4(9), 5269–5276 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter,” Opt. Lett.22(7), 475–477 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of square surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for long-range polarization-independent waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035434 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. A. Pfeiffer, E. N. Economou, and K. L. Ngai, “Surface polaritons in a circularly cylindrical interface: Surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B10(8), 3038–3051 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Khosravi, D. R. Tilley, and R. Loudon, “Surface polaritons in cylindrical optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A8(1), 112–122 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Novotny and C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics50(5), 4094–4106 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. U. Schröter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B64(12), 125420 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Kall, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and reduction of damping in plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(2), 661–665 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035420 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2007).
  33. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Zhang, L. K. Cai, W. L. Bai, Y. Xu, and G. F. Song, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide with gain medium for lossless propagation with nanoscale confinement,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2312–2314 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Y. Song, M. Yan, Q. Yang, L. M. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Reducing crosstalk between nanowire-based hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 480–484 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. X. Dai, Y. C. Shi, S. L. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Gain enhancement in a hybrid plasmonic nano-waveguide with a low-index or high-index gain medium,” Opt. Express19(14), 12925–12936 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985).
  40. P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. Le Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic model for the optical properties of gold,” J. Chem. Phys.125(16), 164705 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  42. C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express19(22), 22029–22106 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and reduction of damping in plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(2), 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (11)

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Kall, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4566–4570 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum plasmonics: optical properties and tunability of metallic nanorods,” ACS Nano4(9), 5269–5276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of square surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for long-range polarization-independent waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. Le Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic model for the optical properties of gold,” J. Chem. Phys.125(16), 164705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

U. Schröter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B64(12), 125420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics50(5), 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1974 (1)

C. A. Pfeiffer, E. N. Economou, and K. L. Ngai, “Surface polaritons in a circularly cylindrical interface: Surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B10(8), 3038–3051 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, A. V.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, W. L.

Balasubramanian, G.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J. M.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barron, L. D.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of square surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for long-range polarization-independent waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, L. K.

Cao, L.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpy, T.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. S.

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. J.

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. D.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. W.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilkoti, A.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cuche, A.

A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4566–4570 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, J. M.

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D. X.

Degiron, A.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

U. Schröter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B64(12), 125420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Stefano, O.

A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, R. M.

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. H.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4566–4570 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, J. Y.

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

C. A. Pfeiffer, E. N. Economou, and K. L. Ngai, “Surface polaritons in a circularly cylindrical interface: Surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B10(8), 3038–3051 (1974).
[CrossRef]

El-Kady, I.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Etchegoin, P. G.

P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. Le Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic model for the optical properties of gold,” J. Chem. Phys.125(16), 164705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y. R.

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fina, N.

A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gadegaard, N.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grotz, B.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, C.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and reduction of damping in plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(2), 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

Guan, J. G.

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Z. Q.

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. C.

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. P.

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, C.

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics50(5), 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. F.

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S. L.

Hemmer, P. R.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, R. T.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and reduction of damping in plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(2), 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. X.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Z.

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Kall, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huant, S.

A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4566–4570 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelezko, F.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, J.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of square surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for long-range polarization-independent waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kadodwala, M.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kall, M.

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Kall, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanal, B. P.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khosravi, H.

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolesov, R.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and reduction of damping in plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(2), 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusar, P.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and reduction of damping in plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(2), 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lapthorn, A. J.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Ru, E. C.

P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. Le Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic model for the optical properties of gold,” J. Chem. Phys.125(16), 164705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. Y.

Li, Z. P.

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. Y.

Loudon, R.

Lukin, M. D.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, L. A.

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. G.

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, M.

P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. Le Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic model for the optical properties of gold,” J. Chem. Phys.125(16), 164705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, T.

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollet, O.

A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4566–4570 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morimoto, A.

Mukherjee, A.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngai, K. L.

C. A. Pfeiffer, E. N. Economou, and K. L. Ngai, “Surface polaritons in a circularly cylindrical interface: Surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B10(8), 3038–3051 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nicolet, A. A. L.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum plasmonics: optical properties and tunability of metallic nanorods,” ACS Nano4(9), 5269–5276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics50(5), 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pausauskie, P.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelton, M.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, C. A.

C. A. Pfeiffer, E. N. Economou, and K. L. Ngai, “Surface polaritons in a circularly cylindrical interface: Surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B10(8), 3038–3051 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popland, M.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, E.

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum plasmonics: optical properties and tunability of metallic nanorods,” ACS Nano4(9), 5269–5276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

Y. Song, M. Yan, Q. Yang, L. M. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Reducing crosstalk between nanowire-based hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 480–484 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, X. F.

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridolfo, A.

A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saija, R.

A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savasta, S.

A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, N. F.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröter, U.

U. Schröter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B64(12), 125420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shegai, T.

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Kall, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y. C.

Sigalas, M. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solis, D.

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Søndergaard, T.

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of square surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for long-range polarization-independent waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, G. F.

Song, Y.

Y. Song, M. Yan, Q. Yang, L. M. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Reducing crosstalk between nanowire-based hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 480–484 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

Stöhr, R. J.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. W.

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Thylen, L.

Tilley, D. R.

Tong, L. M.

Y. Song, M. Yan, Q. Yang, L. M. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Reducing crosstalk between nanowire-based hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 480–484 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. F.

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, B.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, B. J.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wosinski, L.

Wrachtrup, J.

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y. F.

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. X.

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Kall, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yamagishi, S.

Yan, M.

Y. Song, M. Yan, Q. Yang, L. M. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Reducing crosstalk between nanowire-based hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 480–484 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R. X.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B. C.

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Y. Song, M. Yan, Q. Yang, L. M. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Reducing crosstalk between nanowire-based hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 480–484 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. L.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H. K.

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zauscher, S.

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. N.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, C. L.

C. L. Zou, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(12), 2495–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. R.

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuloaga, J.

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum plasmonics: optical properties and tunability of metallic nanorods,” ACS Nano4(9), 5269–5276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum plasmonics: optical properties and tunability of metallic nanorods,” ACS Nano4(9), 5269–5276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wild, L. Cao, Y. Sun, B. P. Khanal, E. R. Zubarev, S. K. Gray, N. F. Scherer, and M. Pelton, “Propagation lengths and group velocities of plasmons in chemically synthesized gold and silver nanowires,” ACS Nano6(1), 472–482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Kall, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. Le Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic model for the optical properties of gold,” J. Chem. Phys.125(16), 164705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (7)

D. Solis, W. S. Chang, B. P. Khanal, K. Bao, P. Nordlander, E. R. Zubarev, and S. Link, “Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP) in single gold nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3482–3485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, and S. Huant, “Deterministic quantum plasmonics,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4566–4570 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and reduction of damping in plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(2), 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between Incident and Emission Polarization in Nanowire Surface Plasmon Waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, A. Degiron, S. Zauscher, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a gold nanoparticle and gold film,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2245–2252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Kolesov, B. Grotz, G. Balasubramanian, R. J. Stöhr, A. A. L. Nicolet, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Wave-particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Phys.5(7), 470–474 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Song, M. Yan, Q. Yang, L. M. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Reducing crosstalk between nanowire-based hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 480–484 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (7)

C. A. Pfeiffer, E. N. Economou, and K. L. Ngai, “Surface polaritons in a circularly cylindrical interface: Surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B10(8), 3038–3051 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of square surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for long-range polarization-independent waveguiding,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Z. Q. Guan, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Effect of a proximal substrate on plasmon propagation in silver nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 241402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Schröter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B64(12), 125420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15299–15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

L. Novotny and C. Hafner, “Light propagation in a cylindrical waveguide with a complex, metallic, dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics50(5), 4094–4106 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ridolfo, O. Di Stefano, N. Fina, R. Saija, and S. Savasta, “Quantum plasmonics with quantum dot-metal nanoparticle molecules: influence of the Fano effect on photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2007).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mathematic model for simulation of a nanowire-substrate waveguiding system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy density distribution on the cross section of Au nanowires. (a) D = 50 nm, no substrate; inset, schematic illustration of the polarized fields. (b) D = 50 nm, MgF2 substrate; inset, schematic illustration of the polarized fields. (c) D = 100 nm, MgF2 substrate; (d) D = 200 nm, MgF2 substrate; (e) D = 100 nm, no substrate; (f) D = 100 nm, SiO2 substrate; (g) D = 100 nm, ITO substrate; (h) D = 100 nm, TiO2 substrate. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical solutions of the real part of propagation constants (Re(β)) of (a) Au nanowires, and (b) Ag nanowires. Insets, Re(β) of the nanowire diameter larger than 100nm. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical solutions of the imaginary part of propagation constants (Im(β)) of (a) Au nanowires, and (b) Ag nanowires. Insets, Im(β) of the nanowire diameter larger than 100nm. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy density distribution on the cross section of Ag nanowires placed on SiO2. (a) D = 10 nm; (b) D = 20 nm; (c) D = 50 nm; (d) D = 100 nm. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fractional power of the plasmon mode of Au nanowires inside the (a) core (ƞc), and (b) substrate (ƞs). Inset of (a), a close-up view of the ƞc for Au nanowires with MgF2 and SiO2 substrates, respectively. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fractional power of the plasmon mode of Ag nanowires inside the (a) core (ƞc), and (b) substrate (ƞs). Inset of (a), a close-up view of the ƞc for Ag nanowires with MgF2 and SiO2 substrates, respectively. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effective mode area (Am) of (a) Au nanowires, and (b) Ag nanowires. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized amplitude of the electric filed along y direction of a 200-nm-diameter Au nanowire. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm. Inset, coordinates on the cross section of the nanowire.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Propagation lengths (Lm) and losses (α) of (a) Au nanowires, and (b) Ag nanowires. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Substrate index (nsub)-dependent propagation length (Lm) of the plasmon mode for (a) Au nanowires, and (b) Ag nanowires. The wavelength of light used here is 660 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive indices of substrates at 660 nm wavelength

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β = Re ( β ) + i Im ( β ) ,
L m = 1 2 Im ( β ) .
α = 10 log ( 1 / e ) L m 4.343 L m .
A m = W m max { W ( r ) } ,
W ( r ) = 1 2 ( d ( ε ( r ) ω ) d ω | E ( r ) | 2 + μ 0 | H ( r ) | 2 ) ,
η c = c o r e W ( r ) d A W m ,
η s = s u b s t r a t e W ( r ) d A W m ,

Metrics