Abstract

An x-ray transfocator design for the combined use of 1D and 2D compound refractive lenses is described. The device includes stacks of beryllium parabolic lenses with different radii of curvature and provides microfocused x-ray beams in the 4-20 keV photon energy range. The transfocator has been implemented at the P10 Coherence Beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron at DESY, Hamburg. Results of transfocator performance and applications for coherent x-ray scattering experiments are presented.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. Madsen, R. L. Leheny, H. Guo, M. Sprung, and O. Czakkel, “Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy,” New J. Phys.12(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Robinson, G. Grübel, and S. Mochrie, “X-ray beams with high coherence,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Leitner, B. Sepiol, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, and G. Vogl, “Atomic diffusion studied with coherent X-rays,” Nat. Mater.8(9), 717–720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. H. Bilderback, P. Elleaume, and E. Weckert, “Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S773–S797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Grübel and F. Zontone, “Correlation spectroscopy with coherent x-rays,” J. Alloy. Comp.362(1-2), 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Schall, I. Cohen, D. A. Weitz, and F. Spaepen, “Visualization of dislocation dynamics in colloidal crystals,” Science305(5692), 1944–1948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(19), 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

D. Sayre, H. N. Chapman, and J. Miao, “On the extendibility of x-ray crystallography to noncrystals,” Acta Crystallogr. A54(2), 232–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. K. S. Tsui, S. G. J. Mochrie, and L. E. Berman, “Statistical analysis of x-ray speckle at the NSLS,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 30–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. Pathmamanoharan, C. Slob, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Preparation of polymethylmethacrylate latices in non-polar media,” Colloid Polym. Sci.267(5), 448–450 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Abernathy, D. L.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramova, V. V.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antl, L.

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benner, B.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berman, L. E.

O. K. S. Tsui, S. G. J. Mochrie, and L. E. Berman, “Statistical analysis of x-ray speckle at the NSLS,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 30–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertone, J. F.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bilderback, D. H.

D. H. Bilderback, P. Elleaume, and E. Weckert, “Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S773–S797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bo, X.-Z.

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boeck, T.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouwman, W. G.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brauer, S.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byelov, D.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byelov, D. V.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bytchkov, A.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

D. Sayre, H. N. Chapman, and J. Miao, “On the extendibility of x-ray crystallography to noncrystals,” Acta Crystallogr. A54(2), 232–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, I.

P. Schall, I. Cohen, D. A. Weitz, and F. Spaepen, “Visualization of dislocation dynamics in colloidal crystals,” Science305(5692), 1944–1948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colvin, V. L.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curfs, C.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Czakkel, O.

A. Madsen, R. L. Leheny, H. Guo, M. Sprung, and O. Czakkel, “Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy,” New J. Phys.12(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dolbnya, I. P.

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drakopoulos, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, A. A.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elleaume, P.

D. H. Bilderback, P. Elleaume, and E. Weckert, “Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S773–S797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Franz, H.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gleyzolle, H.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodwin, J. W.

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, S. V.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigoryeva, N. A.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grübel, G.

I. Robinson, G. Grübel, and S. Mochrie, “X-ray beams with high coherence,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Grübel and F. Zontone, “Correlation spectroscopy with coherent x-rays,” J. Alloy. Comp.362(1-2), 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulden, J.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Günzler, T. F.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

A. Madsen, R. L. Leheny, H. Guo, M. Sprung, and O. Czakkel, “Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy,” New J. Phys.12(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hart, D. C.

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hilhorst, J.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, R. D.

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imhof, A.

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, M.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kvashnina, K.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leheny, R. L.

A. Madsen, R. L. Leheny, H. Guo, M. Sprung, and O. Czakkel, “Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy,” New J. Phys.12(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, M.

M. Leitner, B. Sepiol, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, and G. Vogl, “Atomic diffusion studied with coherent X-rays,” Nat. Mater.8(9), 717–720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lekkerkerker, H. N. W.

C. Pathmamanoharan, C. Slob, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Preparation of polymethylmethacrylate latices in non-polar media,” Colloid Polym. Sci.267(5), 448–450 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leupold, O.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lima, E.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, A.

A. Madsen, R. L. Leheny, H. Guo, M. Sprung, and O. Czakkel, “Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy,” New J. Phys.12(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancuso, A. P.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzger, T. H.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

D. Sayre, H. N. Chapman, and J. Miao, “On the extendibility of x-ray crystallography to noncrystals,” Acta Crystallogr. A54(2), 232–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mochrie, S.

I. Robinson, G. Grübel, and S. Mochrie, “X-ray beams with high coherence,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mochrie, S. G. J.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. K. S. Tsui, S. G. J. Mochrie, and L. E. Berman, “Statistical analysis of x-ray speckle at the NSLS,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 30–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mocuta, C.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moussaid, A.

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mulders, N.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mundboth, K.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Napolskii, K. S.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottewill, R. H.

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Owens, S. M.

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Papworth, S.

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pathmamanoharan, C.

C. Pathmamanoharan, C. Slob, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Preparation of polymethylmethacrylate latices in non-polar media,” Colloid Polym. Sci.267(5), 448–450 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pernot, P.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petukhov, A. V.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, B.

M. Leitner, B. Sepiol, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, and G. Vogl, “Atomic diffusion studied with coherent X-rays,” Nat. Mater.8(9), 717–720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, M. A.

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(19), 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitney, J. A.

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(19), 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richwin, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I.

I. Robinson, G. Grübel, and S. Mochrie, “X-ray beams with high coherence,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. K.

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(19), 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Röhlsberger, R.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rossat, M.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S. V.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandy, A. R.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapoletova, N. A.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayre, D.

D. Sayre, H. N. Chapman, and J. Miao, “On the extendibility of x-ray crystallography to noncrystals,” Acta Crystallogr. A54(2), 232–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schall, P.

P. Schall, I. Cohen, D. A. Weitz, and F. Spaepen, “Visualization of dislocation dynamics in colloidal crystals,” Science305(5692), 1944–1948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidbauer, M.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seeck, O. H.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sepiol, B.

M. Leitner, B. Sepiol, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, and G. Vogl, “Atomic diffusion studied with coherent X-rays,” Nat. Mater.8(9), 717–720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinitskii, A.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slob, C.

C. Pathmamanoharan, C. Slob, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Preparation of polymethylmethacrylate latices in non-polar media,” Colloid Polym. Sci.267(5), 448–450 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spaepen, F.

P. Schall, I. Cohen, D. A. Weitz, and F. Spaepen, “Visualization of dislocation dynamics in colloidal crystals,” Science305(5692), 1944–1948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spengler, J.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sprung, M.

A. Madsen, R. L. Leheny, H. Guo, M. Sprung, and O. Czakkel, “Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy,” New J. Phys.12(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, L.-M.

M. Leitner, B. Sepiol, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, and G. Vogl, “Atomic diffusion studied with coherent X-rays,” Nat. Mater.8(9), 717–720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stangl, J.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, G. B.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strempfer, J.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, M.

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thijssen, J. H. J.

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Timmins, J.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tischer, M.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, O. K. S.

O. K. S. Tsui, S. G. J. Mochrie, and L. E. Berman, “Statistical analysis of x-ray speckle at the NSLS,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 30–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tümmler, J.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Blaaderen, A.

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vartanyants, I. A.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(19), 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasilieva, A. V.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaughan, G.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G. B. M.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viefhaus, J.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogl, G.

M. Leitner, B. Sepiol, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, and G. Vogl, “Atomic diffusion studied with coherent X-rays,” Nat. Mater.8(9), 717–720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waters, J. A.

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weckert, E.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Bilderback, P. Elleaume, and E. Weckert, “Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S773–S797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

P. Schall, I. Cohen, D. A. Weitz, and F. Spaepen, “Visualization of dislocation dynamics in colloidal crystals,” Science305(5692), 1944–1948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiegart, L.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(19), 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, J.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. P.

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wroblewski, T.

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yefanov, O. M.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zontone, F.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Grübel and F. Zontone, “Correlation spectroscopy with coherent x-rays,” J. Alloy. Comp.362(1-2), 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zozulya, A. V.

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

D. Sayre, H. N. Chapman, and J. Miao, “On the extendibility of x-ray crystallography to noncrystals,” Acta Crystallogr. A54(2), 232–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Mater. (1)

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater.11(8), 2132–2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Colloid Polym. Sci. (1)

C. Pathmamanoharan, C. Slob, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Preparation of polymethylmethacrylate latices in non-polar media,” Colloid Polym. Sci.267(5), 448–450 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. (1)

L. Antl, J. W. Goodwin, R. D. Hill, R. H. Ottewill, S. M. Owens, S. Papworth, and J. A. Waters, “The preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) latices in non-aqueous media,” Colloids Surf.17(1), 67–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

G. Grübel and F. Zontone, “Correlation spectroscopy with coherent x-rays,” J. Alloy. Comp.362(1-2), 3–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

A. V. Petukhov, J. H. J. Thijssen, D. C. Hart, A. Imhof, A. van Blaaderen, I. P. Dolbnya, A. Snigirev, A. Moussaid, and I. Snigireva, “Microradian x-ray diffraction in colloidal photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst.39(2), 137–144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

D. H. Bilderback, P. Elleaume, and E. Weckert, “Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S773–S797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.38(10A), A218–A222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, G. Vaughan, J. Wright, M. Rossat, A. Bytchkov, and C. Curfs, “High energy x-ray transfocator based on Al parabolic refractive lenses for focusing and collimation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.186, 012073 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (4)

G. B. M. Vaughan, J. P. Wright, A. Bytchkov, M. Rossat, H. Gleyzolle, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray transfocators: focusing devices based on compound refractive lenses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.18(2), 125–133 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. Brauer, I. McNulty, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. R. Sandy, N. Mulders, and M. Sutton, “Small-angle X-ray scattering using coherent undulator radiation at the ESRF,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 37–47 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. K. S. Tsui, S. G. J. Mochrie, and L. E. Berman, “Statistical analysis of x-ray speckle at the NSLS,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.5(1), 30–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Leitner, B. Sepiol, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, and G. Vogl, “Atomic diffusion studied with coherent X-rays,” Nat. Mater.8(9), 717–720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

A. Madsen, R. L. Leheny, H. Guo, M. Sprung, and O. Czakkel, “Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy,” New J. Phys.12(5), 055001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Robinson, G. Grübel, and S. Mochrie, “X-ray beams with high coherence,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. V. Zozulya, O. M. Yefanov, I. A. Vartanyants, K. Mundboth, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Imaging of nanoislands in coherent grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering experiments,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 121304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(19), 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Schall, I. Cohen, D. A. Weitz, and F. Spaepen, “Visualization of dislocation dynamics in colloidal crystals,” Science305(5692), 1944–1948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synchrotron Radiat. News (1)

H. Franz, O. Leupold, R. Röhlsberger, S. V. Roth, O. H. Seeck, J. Spengler, J. Strempfer, M. Tischer, J. Viefhaus, E. Weckert, and T. Wroblewski, “PETRA III: DESY’s new high brilliance third generation synchrotron radiation source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News19(6), 25–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Technical Design Report of PETRA III, http://petra3.desy.de/sites/site_petra3/content/general/tdr/index_eng.html .

Homepage of B. Lengeler group at RWTH Aachen, Germany, http://www.physik.rwth-aachen.de/en/institutes/institute-iib/group-lengeler/ .

T. Schubert, “Design of the CRL transfocators for P08 and P09,” DESY internal report.

R. Döhrmann, S. Botta, G. Falkenberg, T. Schubert, S. V. Roth, “The compound refractive lens changer for PETRA III,” Highlights and HASYLAB Annual Report, 98–99 (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographs of beryllium refractive lenses: (a) 2D rotationally parabolic lens and (b) 1D cylinder parabolic lens. Design drawings showing (c) the 2D lens stack holder and (d) the 1D lens stack holder (view along an optical axis).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Design drawing of the CRL transfocator mounted on a 5-axis positioning stage. (b) Photograph of the transfocator installed at the P10 beamline.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical (squares) and horizontal (triangles) focal spot sizes measured as a function of an offset ΔX. Solid lines represent parabolic fitting curves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focal spot sizes measured (a) in horizontal and (b) in vertical directions by knife edge scanning. Experimental data are represented by red squares, derivative curves and gaussian fits are shown by blue cycles and blue solid lines respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Speckle contrast β measured as a function of the vertical size of CRL entrance slit G2 at the constant horizontal sizes of 50, 75 and 100 µm. Solid lines represent the fitting curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Coherent diffraction pattern measured from a colloidal crystal using CRL focused x-rays. Intensity values are logarithmically scaled. (b) Reconstructed image of the illuminated sample area.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Arrangement of individual lenses of the transfocator

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured (Texp) and calculated (Tcalc) transmission for different CRL combinations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Contrast values and fitting results

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β=B/( 1+ ( p/ S min ) 2 ),
D=1.22λ L q / d sl +C d sl .

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