Abstract

We present an analysis and demonstration of few-cycle ultrashort laser pulse characterization using second-harmonic dispersion scans and numerical phase retrieval algorithms. The sensitivity and robustness of this technique with respect to noise, measurement bandwidth and complexity of the measured pulses is discussed through numerical examples and experimental results. Using this technique, we successfully demonstrate the characterization of few-cycle pulses with complex and structured spectra generated from a broadband ultrafast laser oscillator and a high-energy hollow fiber compressor.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  37. H. Crespo, M. Miranda, P. Oliveira, and R. Weigand are preparing a manuscript to be called “Broadband 5.9-fs Ti:sapphire laser characterized using the dispersion-scan technique.”

2012

2011

2010

2009

I. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(2), 308–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

B. Xu, J. M. Gunn, J. M. D. Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Quantitative investigation of the multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan method for simultaneous phase measurement and compensation of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(4), 750–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, Ch. Lienau, Ch. Warmuth, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B83(4), 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett.29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. Keusters, H.-S. Tan, P. O'Shea, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and W. S. Warren, “Relative-phase ambiguities in measurements of ultrashort pulses with well-separated multiple frequency components,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(10), 2226–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(20), 2793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(2), 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A10(5), 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun.88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

1965

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

Amani Eilanlou, A.

Apolonski, A.

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C.

Austin, D. R.

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5-fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett.23(18), 1474–1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, P. K.

Benedick, A.

Biegert, J.

A. S. Wyatt, A. Grün, P. K. Bates, O. Chalus, J. Biegert, and I. A. Walmsley, “Accuracy measurements and improvement for complete characterization of optical pulses from nonlinear processes via multiple spectral-shearing interferometry,” Opt. Express19(25), 25355–25366 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Binhammer, T.

Birge, J. R.

Borukhovich, I.

Burgdorfer, J.

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butkus, R.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chalus, O.

Coello, Y.

Couairon, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crespo, H.

Crespo, H. M.

Cruz, J. M. D.

Dantus, M.

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(20), 2793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J. C. M.

Dombi, P.

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

Drexler, W.

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun.88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ell, R.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, J. Kim, R. Ell, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Morgner, “Controlled waveforms on the single-cycle scale from a femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Express16(13), 9739–9745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

Ferencz, K.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, J. J.

Fordell, T.

Fuji, T.

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grün, A.

Gunaratne, T. C.

Gunn, J. M.

Harth, A.

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

Ippen, E. P.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K. L.

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jonušauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun.88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(2), 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A10(5), 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keusters, D.

Kim, J.

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

Leemans, W. P.

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemell, C.

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, Ch.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, Ch. Lienau, Ch. Warmuth, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B83(4), 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lozovoy, V. V.

McMichael, I. C.

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

Metzler, G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Miranda, M.

Morgner, U.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, J. Kim, R. Ell, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Morgner, “Controlled waveforms on the single-cycle scale from a femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Express16(13), 9739–9745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun.56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(20), 2793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O'Shea, P.

Pastirk, I.

Piskarskas, A.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun.88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A. P.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5-fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett.23(18), 1474–1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rausch, S.

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, Ch. Lienau, Ch. Warmuth, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B83(4), 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sander, M. Y.

Sartania, S.

Schibli, T. R.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, C. B.

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

Spielmann, Ch.

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, Ch. Lienau, Ch. Warmuth, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B83(4), 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, Ch. Lienau, Ch. Warmuth, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B83(4), 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun.56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(20), 2793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Szipöcs, R.

Takahashi, H.

Tan, H.-S.

Tempea, G.

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

D. Keusters, H.-S. Tan, P. O'Shea, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and W. S. Warren, “Relative-phase ambiguities in measurements of ultrashort pulses with well-separated multiple frequency components,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(10), 2226–2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(2), 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A10(5), 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C.-H.

Udem, T.

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I.

Walmsley, I. A.

Warmuth, Ch.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, Ch. Lienau, Ch. Warmuth, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B83(4), 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

Weinacht, T.

Wiersma, D. A.

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5-fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett.23(18), 1474–1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witting, T.

Wyatt, A. S.

Xu, B.

Yakovlev, V. S.

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, A. Unterhuber, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, A. Stingl, F. Krausz, and W. Drexler, “Generation of smooth, ultra-broadband spectra directly from a prism-less Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. B77(1), 125–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Yakovlev, P. Dombi, G. Tempea, C. Lemell, J. Burgdorfer, T. Udem, and A. Apolonski, “Phase-stabilized 4-fs pulses at the full oscillator repetition rate for a photoemission experiment,” Appl. Phys. B76(3), 329–332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, Ch. Lienau, Ch. Warmuth, A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B83(4), 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(20), 2793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Comput. J.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J.7, 308–313 (1965).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(2), 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun.56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun.88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

D. R. Austin, T. Witting, and I. A. Walmsley, “Resolution of the relative phase ambiguity in spectral shearing interferometry of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1971–1973 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett.29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5-fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett.23(18), 1474–1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Crespo, J. R. Birge, E. L. Falcão-Filho, M. Y. Sander, A. Benedick, and F. X. Kärtner, “Nonintrusive phase stabilization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a prismless octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 833–835 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett.22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett.23(10), 792–794 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and W. P. Leemans, “Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(3), 1229–1285 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Crespo, M. Miranda, P. Oliveira, and R. Weigand are preparing a manuscript to be called “Broadband 5.9-fs Ti:sapphire laser characterized using the dispersion-scan technique.”

A. Baltuška, A. Pugzlys, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Rapid amplitude-phase reconstruction of femtosecond pulses from intensity autocorrelation and spectrum,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), 264–265.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured spectrum and simulated phase (a) and corresponding d-scan trace (b). The algorithm uses a GD representation to try to match the simulated trace (d) to the target trace (b). It starts with a coarse representation which is then interpolated to a finer one as the algorithm reaches a minimum. In (c) a given amount of free parameters are available (green dots), the GD curve is interpolated from those values, and the phase (blue dotted line) is calculated from that GD curve. For this amount of points the best it can do is to produce trace (d). The algorithm then continues by adding more degrees of freedom (blue dots), until it reaches the sampling limit. The previously determined values are still allowed to vary.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of simulated dispersion scans for different complex cases, where the spectral phase plots on the left correspond to zero insertion in the scans on the right. (a) simulated and retrieved phase and corresponding d-scan (b) multiplied by a crystal response curve, together with hard clipping at the spectral edges and 5% additive noise added. (c) and (d) correspond to relatively small but fast phase variations that heavily distort the trace. (e) and (f) demonstrate the case of a hard-clipped spectrum with phase, group delay and group delay dispersion discontinuities between the resulting two spectral regions. For all of these cases the retrieved phase is in very good agreement with the initial simulated phase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Error as a function of the added Gaussian noise for the example from Fig. 1(a). For each amount of noise, five retrievals were done. The error bars indicate the standard deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. The glass wedges are made of BK7, and the chirped mirrors are made in matched pairs to minimize phase ringing. In some cases a mask was used to spatially separate the SHG signal from the fundamental beam at the detector, while in others a blue filter was used to block the fundamental beam (see text). The SHG crystal was either a 5 or 20 μm thick BBO.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured (a), calibrated (b), and retrieved (c) scans from the home-built ultrafast oscillator, obtained with a 5 μm thick BBO crystal. The retrieved phase statistics in the spectral domain (d) and the corresponding time reconstructions (e) were obtained from 5 different measurements and retrievals. The same applies to plots (f) to (j), but for a 20 μm thick crystal. The measured pulse duration is 6.0 ± 0.1 fs FWHM, with a Fourier limit of 5.2 fs for both cases.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (a) and (e), and retrieved (b) and (f) scans from a hollow-fiber compressor operating in different regimes. The measured pulse durations are respectively 6.2 and 6.5 fs FWHM, with Fourier limits of 4.7 and 6.1 fs.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S(ω,z)= | ( U ˜ (Ω)exp{ izk(Ω) }exp(iΩt) dΩ ) 2 exp(iωt)dt | 2 ,
S(ω,z)= | U ˜ (Ω)exp{ izk(Ω) } U ˜ (ωΩ)exp{ izk(ωΩ) }dΩ | 2
ε= U 1 U 2 = [ 1 2π | U ˜ 1 (ω) U ˜ 2 (ω) | 2 dω ] 1/2 ,

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