Abstract

Femtosecond pump probe spectroscopy experiments were carried out to observe extensional modes of GaN nanorods. Different orders of extensional modes were generated and observed following the absorption of femtosecond light pulses. This observation confirms that with a diameter on the order of 100 nm, no mechanical change is expected compared to bulk GaN. We propose and demonstrate that the detection of these modes is achieved through the modulation of the Fabry-Pérot cavity formed by the nanorod array. The extensional modes change the nanorods length and thus modify the reflectivity of the rod-array cavity.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).
  25. A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. O. B. Wright, “Thickness and sound velocity measurement in thin transparent films with laser picosecond acoustics,” J. Appl. Phys.71(4), 1617 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Devos, J.-F. Robillard, R. Côte, and P. Emery, “High-laser-wavelength sensitivity of the picosecond ultrasonic response in transparent thin films,” Phys. Rev. B74(6), 064114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

2009 (2)

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

D. A. Smith, V. C. Holmberg, D. C. Lee, and B. A. Korgel, “Young's Modulus and Size-Dependent Mechanical Quality Factor of Nanoelectromechanical Germanium Nanowire Resonators,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(29), 10725–10729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct Observation of the Radial Breathing Mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Nichol, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and R. Budakian, “Displacement detection of silicon nanowires by polarization-enhanced fiber-optic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 193110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, W.-C. Chen, J.-S. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Gallium nitride nanorod arrays as low-refractive-index transparent media in the entire visible spectral region,” Opt. Express16(11), 8106–8116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Su, Y. F. Chen, C. L. Hsiao, and L. W. Tu, “Generation of electricity in GaN nanorods induced by piezoelectric effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(6), 063110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Chen, Y. Shi, Y. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. J. Yan, “Size Dependence of Young’s Modulus in ZnO Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 075505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devos, J.-F. Robillard, R. Côte, and P. Emery, “High-laser-wavelength sensitivity of the picosecond ultrasonic response in transparent thin films,” Phys. Rev. B74(6), 064114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Nature409(6816), 66–69 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

E. W. Wong, P. E. Sheehan, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes,” Science277(5334), 1971–1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

O. B. Wright, “Thickness and sound velocity measurement in thin transparent films with laser picosecond acoustics,” J. Appl. Phys.71(4), 1617 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

W. B. Gauster and D. H. Habing, “Electronic Volume Effect in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.18(24), 1058–1061 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbouet, A.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artemyev, M.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct Observation of the Radial Breathing Mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belov, M.

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budakian, R.

J. M. Nichol, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and R. Budakian, “Displacement detection of silicon nanowires by polarization-enhanced fiber-optic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 193110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burgin, J.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantoro, M.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-F.

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Q.

C. Q. Chen, Y. Shi, Y. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. J. Yan, “Size Dependence of Young’s Modulus in ZnO Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 075505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-Y.

Chen, J.-S.

Chen, Q. Y.

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-C.

Chen, Y. F.

W. S. Su, Y. F. Chen, C. L. Hsiao, and L. W. Tu, “Generation of electricity in GaN nanorods induced by piezoelectric effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(6), 063110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, T. W.

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, W. K.

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K.-Y.

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chyi, J.-I.

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côte, R.

A. Devos, J.-F. Robillard, R. Côte, and P. Emery, “High-laser-wavelength sensitivity of the picosecond ultrasonic response in transparent thin films,” Phys. Rev. B74(6), 064114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Nature409(6816), 66–69 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devos, A.

A. Devos, J.-F. Robillard, R. Côte, and P. Emery, “High-laser-wavelength sensitivity of the picosecond ultrasonic response in transparent thin films,” Phys. Rev. B74(6), 064114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Nature409(6816), 66–69 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekinci, K. L.

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emery, P.

A. Devos, J.-F. Robillard, R. Côte, and P. Emery, “High-laser-wavelength sensitivity of the picosecond ultrasonic response in transparent thin films,” Phys. Rev. B74(6), 064114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evoy, S.

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feidenhans’l, R.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

Fischer, J. E.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauster, W. B.

W. B. Gauster and D. H. Habing, “Electronic Volume Effect in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.18(24), 1058–1061 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalo, J.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimsditch, M.

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerin, L.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwo, S.

Habing, D. H.

W. B. Gauster and D. H. Habing, “Electronic Volume Effect in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.18(24), 1058–1061 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hartland, G. V.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemesath, E. R.

J. M. Nichol, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and R. Budakian, “Displacement detection of silicon nanowires by polarization-enhanced fiber-optic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 193110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiebert, W. K.

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmberg, V. C.

D. A. Smith, V. C. Holmberg, D. C. Lee, and B. A. Korgel, “Young's Modulus and Size-Dependent Mechanical Quality Factor of Nanoelectromechanical Germanium Nanowire Resonators,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(29), 10725–10729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. L.

W. S. Su, Y. F. Chen, C. L. Hsiao, and L. W. Tu, “Generation of electricity in GaN nanorods induced by piezoelectric effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(6), 063110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-T.

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, K. Y.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, K.-W.

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, M.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K.-S.

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Nature409(6816), 66–69 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaroenapibal, P.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jerebtsov, S. N.

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Juste, J. P.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamins, T. I.

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khakhulin, D.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kjaer, K. S.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korgel, B. A.

D. A. Smith, V. C. Holmberg, D. C. Lee, and B. A. Korgel, “Young's Modulus and Size-Dependent Mechanical Quality Factor of Nanoelectromechanical Germanium Nanowire Resonators,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(29), 10725–10729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C.-M.

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, H.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct Observation of the Radial Breathing Mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langot, P.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauhon, L. J.

J. M. Nichol, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and R. Budakian, “Displacement detection of silicon nanowires by polarization-enhanced fiber-optic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 193110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. C.

D. A. Smith, V. C. Holmberg, D. C. Lee, and B. A. Korgel, “Young's Modulus and Size-Dependent Mechanical Quality Factor of Nanoelectromechanical Germanium Nanowire Resonators,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(29), 10725–10729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, H. T.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

Lieber, C. M.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Nature409(6816), 66–69 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Wong, P. E. Sheehan, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes,” Science277(5334), 1971–1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, Y.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-W.

Lin, K.-H.

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-M.

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, I.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luzzi, D. E.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margueritat, J.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariager, S. O.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlayah, A.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohr, M.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct Observation of the Radial Breathing Mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichol, J. M.

J. M. Nichol, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and R. Budakian, “Displacement detection of silicon nanowires by polarization-enhanced fiber-optic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 193110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. M.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuccio, L.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-C.

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piscanec, S.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polian, A.

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys.79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasankumar, R. P.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

Quitoriano, N. J.

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robillard, J.-F.

A. Devos, J.-F. Robillard, R. Côte, and P. Emery, “High-laser-wavelength sensitivity of the picosecond ultrasonic response in transparent thin films,” Phys. Rev. B74(6), 064114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rossell, M. D.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roukes, M. L.

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(6), 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sader, J. E.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H. A.

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. W.

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S.

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, P. E.

E. W. Wong, P. E. Sheehan, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes,” Science277(5334), 1971–1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.-W.

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

C. Q. Chen, Y. Shi, Y. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. J. Yan, “Size Dependence of Young’s Modulus in ZnO Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 075505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, V. C. Holmberg, D. C. Lee, and B. A. Korgel, “Young's Modulus and Size-Dependent Mechanical Quality Factor of Nanoelectromechanical Germanium Nanowire Resonators,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(29), 10725–10729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, C. B.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, W. S.

W. S. Su, Y. F. Chen, C. L. Hsiao, and L. W. Tu, “Generation of electricity in GaN nanorods induced by piezoelectric effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(6), 063110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-K.

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.-Z.

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J

P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

Tchebotareva, A. L.

P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tham, D.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, C.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct Observation of the Radial Breathing Mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, L. W.

W. S. Su, Y. F. Chen, C. L. Hsiao, and L. W. Tu, “Generation of electricity in GaN nanorods induced by piezoelectric effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(6), 063110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601–1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

Vallée, F.

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

Wang, J.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Nature409(6816), 66–69 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
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H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct Observation of the Radial Breathing Mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. W. Wong, P. E. Sheehan, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes,” Science277(5334), 1971–1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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O. B. Wright, “Thickness and sound velocity measurement in thin transparent films with laser picosecond acoustics,” J. Appl. Phys.71(4), 1617 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Q. Chen, Y. Shi, Y. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. J. Yan, “Size Dependence of Young’s Modulus in ZnO Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 075505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.-S.

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. S.

C. Q. Chen, Y. Shi, Y. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. J. Yan, “Size Dependence of Young’s Modulus in ZnO Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 075505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

C. Q. Chen, Y. Shi, Y. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. J. Yan, “Size Dependence of Young’s Modulus in ZnO Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 075505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. M. Nichol, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and R. Budakian, “Displacement detection of silicon nanowires by polarization-enhanced fiber-optic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 193110 (2008).
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W. S. Su, Y. F. Chen, C. L. Hsiao, and L. W. Tu, “Generation of electricity in GaN nanorods induced by piezoelectric effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(6), 063110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational Response of Nanorods to Ultrafast Laser Induced Heating: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-W. Hu, T.-M. Liu, K.-Y. Chung, K.-S. Huang, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-K. Sun, and C.-S. Yeh, “Efficient Near-IR Hyperthermia and Intense Nonlinear Optical Imaging Contrast on the Gold Nanorod-in-Shell Nanostructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(40), 14186–14187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Belov, N. J. Quitoriano, S. Sharma, W. K. Hiebert, T. I. Kamins, and S. Evoy, “Mechanical resonance of clamped silicon nanowires measured by optical interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074304 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

D. A. Smith, V. C. Holmberg, D. C. Lee, and B. A. Korgel, “Young's Modulus and Size-Dependent Mechanical Quality Factor of Nanoelectromechanical Germanium Nanowire Resonators,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(29), 10725–10729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. L. Hsiao, L. W. Tu, T. W. Chi, H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, and W. K. Chu, “Buffer controlled GaN nanorods growth on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(2), 845–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct Observation of Acoustic Oscillations in InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-Dependent Electromechanical Properties of GaN Nanowires,” Nano Lett.6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, and M. Orrit, “Acoustic Oscillations and Elastic Moduli of Single Gold Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3493–3497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct Observation of the Radial Breathing Mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Burgin, P. Langot, A. Arbouet, J. Margueritat, J. Gonzalo, C. N. Afonso, F. Vallée, A. Mlayah, M. D. Rossell, and G. Van Tendeloo, “Acoustic Vibration Modes and Electron Lattice Coupling in Self-Assembled Silver Nanocolumns,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1296–1302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(11), 704–708 (2007).
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Nature (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, Y. Cui, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Nature409(6816), 66–69 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Devos, J.-F. Robillard, R. Côte, and P. Emery, “High-laser-wavelength sensitivity of the picosecond ultrasonic response in transparent thin films,” Phys. Rev. B74(6), 064114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Jerebtsov, A. A. Kolomenskii, H. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Ye, Z. Luo, W. Wu, G. G. Paulus, and H. A. Schuessler, “Laser-excited acoustic oscillations in silver and bismuth nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B76(18), 184301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Q. Chen, Y. Shi, Y. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. J. Yan, “Size Dependence of Young’s Modulus in ZnO Nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 075505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. W. Wong, P. E. Sheehan, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes,” Science277(5334), 1971–1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. C. Upadhya, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 024017 (2010).

Other (1)

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, A. M. Kosevich, and L. P. Pitaevskii, Theory of Elasticity (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM pictures of nanorods array. The average length is 1150 nm and diameter is 100 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transient reflectivity trace with a pump wavelength of 360 nm and a probe wavelength of 720 nm. (Inset) Transient reflectivity with background removed. (b) Fourier transform of transient reflectivity. (c) FEM simulation of the mode shapes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and simulated reflectivity spectrum at a 45° incidence angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Theoretical amplitude of the acoustic signal as a function of the angle of incidence of probe light at a wavelength of 730 nm (b) Transient reflectivity at a probe wavelength of 730 nm obtained for different incident angle.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ext n = 2n+1 4l E ρ
R=1 T AirGaN T GaNSi 12 r GaNAir r GaNSi cos(δ)+ r GaNAir 2 r GaNSi 2
δ= 4π n GaN l λ cos(θ)
ΔR 8πn T AirGaN T GaNSi r GaNAir r GaNSi cos(θ)sin(δ) λ (12 r GaNAir r GaNSi cos(δ)+ r GaNAir 2 r GaNSi 2 ) 2

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