Abstract

A method for measuring the effective refractive-index differences in a few-mode fiber by applying axial fiber stretching is described. This method represents a straightforward technique for characterization of few-mode fibers. Interference between LP01 and LP11 and in some cases also between LP11 and LP21 are observed in a fiber designed for support of LP01 and LP11. The relative strength of the coupled modes depends on specific splicing characteristics, and in some cases only two modes are seen. The results agree well with theoretical predictions for the fiber under investigation.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2012 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, “Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.37(24), 1439–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1987 (1)

Blake, J. N.

Bolle, C.

Burrows, E. C.

Danziger, Y.

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, “Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.37(24), 1439–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcello, F. V.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R. J.

Ghalmi, S.

Gnauck, A. H.

Huang, S. Y.

Hwang, I. K.

Kim, B. K.

Kim, B. Y.

Lingle, R.

McCurdy, A. H.

Menashe, D.

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, “Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.37(24), 1439–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E.

Mumtaz, S.

Nicholson, J. W.

Peckham, D. W.

Ramachandran, S.

Randel, S.

Ryf, R.

Shaw, H. J.

Sierra, A.

Tur, M.

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, “Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.37(24), 1439–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Wisk, P.

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, M. F.

Yun, S. H.

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Menashe, M. Tur, and Y. Danziger, “Interferometric technique for measuring dispersion of high order modes in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.37(24), 1439–1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Pálsdóttir, F. Poletti, and J. Nicholson, “Measuring distributed mode scattering in long, few-moded fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4.

M. Travagnin and F. Sartori, “Multi-path interference in a bend-insensitive fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMO3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental setup. The fiber under test is fusion spliced to single-mode pigtails, and glued on two places to a translation stage and a force sensor. Optical power spectrums are recorded as a function of axial fiber stretch induced by the stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The numerically calculated effective refractive indices found by solving the scalar wave equation for the specific fiber profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transmitted power as a function of wavelength and axial fiber stretch. The intensity is oscillating both as a function of wavelength and fiber stretch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The measured effective refractive-index difference as a function of wavelength for the first FUT shown as the solid curve. Dashed lines correspond to the numerically solved differences in effective refractive-index between different modes. LP01-LP21 and LP01-LP02 are also calculated but they are outside the figure limits. (b) A close-up of the data in (a) (solid curve), and additionally the result for the second FUT with two distinct interferences (dotted and dash-dotted curves, corresponding to LP01-LP11 and LP11-LP21, respectively). The shaded regions represent the estimated one standard deviation error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The transmitted power as a function of the fiber strain for the second measurement at 1537 nm. The solid line shows the fit by a sum of two sine functions.

Equations (4)

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Δβ(L)LΔβ( L 0 ) L 0 +[ dΔβ(L) dL | L 0 ·L+Δβ( L 0 ) ]ΔL.
Δβ(L)LΔβ( L 0 ) L 0 +Δβ( L 0 )ΔL.
L B = 2π Δβ( L 0 ) = λ 0 Δ n eff .
Λ= λ 0 2 L(Δ n eff λ 0 n eff dλ ) = λ 0 2 cΔ τ g ,

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