Abstract

We report on the fabrication of depressed cladding waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG (neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Nd:Y3Al5O12) ceramics microstructured by femtosecond laser pulses. Full control over the confined light spatial distribution is demonstrated by the fabrication of high contrast waveguides with hexagonal, circular and trapezoidal configurations. The confocal fluorescence measurements of the waveguides reveal that the original luminescence features of Nd3+ ions are well-preserved in the waveguide regions. Under optical pump at 808 nm, cladding waveguides showed continuous wave efficient laser oscillation. The maximum output power obtained at 1064.5 nm is ~181 mW with a slope efficiency as high as 44%, which suggests that the fabricated Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides are promising candidates for efficient integrated laser sources.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (9)

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, “High-contrast step-index waveguides in borate nonlinear laser crystals by 3D laser writing,” Opt. Express19(18), 17820–17833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Beecher, R. R. Thomson, D. T. Reid, N. D. Psaila, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, and A. K. Kar, “Strain field manipulation in ultrafast laser inscribed BiB3O6 optical waveguides for nonlinear applications,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4548–4550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A. G. Paschke, N. O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4620–4622 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett.34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Zhou, F. He, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Electro-optic integration of embedded electrodes and waveguides in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2281–2283 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1840–1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Ams, M.

Apostolopoulos, V.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aung, Y. L.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baro, A. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beecher, S. J.

Benayas, A.

A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Brown, G.

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A. G. Paschke, N. O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4620–4622 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express20(3), 1969–1974 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett.34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. DOI .
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Colchero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N.

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N. N.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

Fechner, M.

Fernández, R.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gómez-Herrero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez-Rodríguez, J. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gross, S.

Hansen, N. O.

He, F.

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Horcas, I.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A. G. Paschke, N. O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4620–4622 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1691–1693 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett.34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Khrushchev, I.

Kuan, K.

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancaster, D. G.

Laporta, P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. Q.

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Lu, Q.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

Macdonald, J.

Macdonald, J. R.

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mary, R.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meilán, P. F.

Mendez, C.

Messing, G. L.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.

Midorikawa, K.

Mitchell, J.

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, S.

Okhrimchuk, A.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Osellame, R.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, A. G.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A. G. Paschke, N. O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4620–4622 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A. G. Paschke, N. O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4620–4622 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N. D.

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, F.

Reid, D. T.

Ren, Y.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y. Y.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Rodenas, A.

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, C.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salathe, R. P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A.

Shestakov, A. V.

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A. G. Paschke, N. O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4620–4622 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

Taira, T.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett.34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, D. Y.

Thomson, R. R.

Torchia, G. A.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Withford, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Xu, J.

Xu, Z.

Yagi, H.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, J.

Zhou, Z.

Zoubir, A.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, T. Taira, and G. L. Messing, “Progress in ceramic lasers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.36(1), 397–429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond irradiation induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. DOI .
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

J. Lamela, A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, F. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Field optical and micro-luminescence investigations of femtosecond laser micro-structured Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express15(6), 3285–3290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, “High-contrast step-index waveguides in borate nonlinear laser crystals by 3D laser writing,” Opt. Express19(18), 17820–17833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express20(3), 1969–1974 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express20(4), 3832–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1691–1693 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Beecher, R. R. Thomson, D. T. Reid, N. D. Psaila, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, and A. K. Kar, “Strain field manipulation in ultrafast laser inscribed BiB3O6 optical waveguides for nonlinear applications,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4548–4550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A. G. Paschke, N. O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4620–4622 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, J. R. Macdonald, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Jaque, and A. K. Kar, “Direct laser writing of near-IR step-index buried channel waveguides in rare earth doped YAG,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3395–3397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Zhou, F. He, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Electro-optic integration of embedded electrodes and waveguides in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2281–2283 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett.34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1840–1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett.30(17), 2248–2250 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. J. Murphy, Integrated Optical Circuits and Components (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup used for the micro-fluorescence investigation of the Nd:YAG ceramic cladding waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission microscope image of the depressed cladding (a) hexagonal, (b) circular and (c) trapezoidal waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramic. The scale bar for the three images is same.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The near field modal profiles of (a) hexagonal, (b) circular and (c) trapezoidal cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramic at 632.8 nm. The dashed lines indicate the spatial location of the boundaries of the structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room-temperature fluorescence emission spectrum (μPL) related to the 4F3/24I9/2 and 4F3/24I11/2 transition of Nd3+ ions obtained from the femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics (red solid line) and bulk of Nd:YAG sample (blue solid line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-dimensional spatial distribution of the (a) emitted intensity, (b) energy shift and (c) FWHM of the Nd3+ emission lines obtained from the end face of the waveguide. (d), (e) and (f) correspond to the three-dimensional spatial distribution, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra of the Nd3+ emission lines at 940 nm for the three different positions (i.e., waveguide, damage filaments and bulk).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The cw laser emission spectrum from the Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide. The FWHM is ~0.6 nm. The waveguide laser modal distributions of (b) hexagonal, (c) circular and (d) trapezoidal waveguides at 1064.5 nm under 808 nm optical pump.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The cw waveguide laser output power at 1064.5 nm as a function of the launched power (a) and the absorbed power (b) at 808 nm. The circular, hexagonal and triangular symbols stand for the data of the circular, hexagonal and trapezoid waveguides, respectively. The solid lines represent the linear fit of the experimental data.

Equations (1)

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Δn= sin 2 Θ m 2n .

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