Abstract

InGaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrate (FS-FCLEDs) with hemisphere-cones-hybrid surface were fabricated using both dry etching with CsCl nanoislands as mask and chemical wet etching. Compared with the corresponding flat LEDs, the light output power of FS-FCLEDs with combined nanostructures shows an enhancement factor of 1.9 at 350mA injection current. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results show that such enhancement of the output power is mainly attributed to the reduction of the total internal reflection and increase of the light scattering probability in the hemisphere-cones-hybrid surface, which is due to a combination effect of light diffraction at the nanocones edges, and light interference within the hemisphere and nanocones.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Danner, B. Z. Wang, S. J. Chua, and J. K. Hwang, “Fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes with a self-assembled photonic crystal array of polystyrene nanoparticles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(1), 48–50 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of photoelectrochemical etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of photoelectrochemical etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Danner, B. Z. Wang, S. J. Chua, and J. K. Hwang, “Fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes with a self-assembled photonic crystal array of polystyrene nanoparticles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(1), 48–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of photoelectrochemical etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bose, R.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S. E.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campos, L. M.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-Y.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.-C.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-F.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. Z.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. K.

Chu, M.-T.

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

A. J. Danner, B. Z. Wang, S. J. Chua, and J. K. Hwang, “Fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes with a self-assembled photonic crystal array of polystyrene nanoparticles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(1), 48–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R. B.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corfdir, P.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dalui, S.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danner, A. J.

A. J. Danner, B. Z. Wang, S. J. Chua, and J. K. Hwang, “Fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes with a self-assembled photonic crystal array of polystyrene nanoparticles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(1), 48–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. J.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deveaud-Plédran, B.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dussaigne, A.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.-H.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganière, J.-D.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giraud, E.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hawker, C. J.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R.-H.

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-P.

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.-L.

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-F.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I.-C.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. K.

A. J. Danner, B. Z. Wang, S. J. Chua, and J. K. Hwang, “Fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes with a self-assembled photonic crystal array of polystyrene nanoparticles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(1), 48–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, R.-H.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jouravlev, M. V.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of photoelectrochemical etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, L. J.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keraly, C. L.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of photoelectrochemical etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

Kim, K. S.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. Y.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, D. M.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

Lee, C. T.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. Y.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. N.

Lee, W. C.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, P.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levrat, J.

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lian, G.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-H.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, I.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Min, S. K.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-C.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Pearton, S. J.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of photoelectrochemical etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qi, S.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, S. L.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z. X.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, S.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of photoelectrochemical etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sang, L. W.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sonoda, J.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. J.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tamboli, A. C.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. B.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teisseyre, H.

P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Corfdir, J. Levrat, A. Dussaigne, P. Lefebvre, H. Teisseyre, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Intrinsic dynamics of weakly and strongly confined excitons in nonpolar nitride-based heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, P. F.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Truong, T. A.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-J.

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-L.

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uang, K. M.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. Z.

A. J. Danner, B. Z. Wang, S. J. Chua, and J. K. Hwang, “Fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes with a self-assembled photonic crystal array of polystyrene nanoparticles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(1), 48–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. R.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. J.

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D.-S.

R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, R.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. L.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. J.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. B.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
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S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(4), 801–804 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Express (2)

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C.-C. Pan, R. B. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express3(12), 122102 (2010).
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S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express5(3), 032104 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
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H. Sato, R. B. Chung, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, F. Wu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical properties of yellow light-emitting diodes grown on semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221110 (2008).
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Electrochem. Solid State (1)

W. C. Lee, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, D. M. Kuo, P. R. Wang, and P. H. Wang, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes with superimposed circular protrusions and hexagonal cones,” Electrochem. Solid State14(2), H53–H56 (2011).
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R.-H. Horng, H.-L. Hu, M.-T. Chu, Y.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Tsai, C.-P. Hsu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Performance of flip-chip thin-film GaN light-emitting diodes with and without patterned sapphires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 550–552 (2010).
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A. J. Danner, B. Z. Wang, S. J. Chua, and J. K. Hwang, “Fabrication of efficient light-emitting diodes with a self-assembled photonic crystal array of polystyrene nanoparticles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(1), 48–50 (2008).
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S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
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P. Corfdir, A. Dussaigne, H. Teisseyre, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, P. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, J.-D. Ganière, N. Grandjean, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 033517 (2012).
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A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth top-down photoelectrochemical etching of M-plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(1), H47–H51 (2009).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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Nature (1)

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, K. S. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
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Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(12), 125022 (2008).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of fabrication process for nanotextured FS-FCLEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of self-assembled CsCl nanoislands on GaN surface before ((a), (b), (c)) and after ((d), (e), (f)) ICP etching with average size of 800nm, 600nm, 300nm respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM images of the nanotextured n-GaN surface; (b) morphology of hemispheres; (c) morphology of nano-cones; (d) cross-sectional view of nanotextured n-GaN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic FS-FCLEDs with hemisphere-shaped arrays for numerical analysis. (b) light extraction efficiency as a function of hemisphere sizes for FS-FCLEDs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

L-I characteristics of flat-LEDs and nanotextured FS-FCLEDs and the optical micrographs of flat-LEDs (a) and nanotextured FS-FCLEDs(b) at 10mA injection current respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Light-output power of the nanotextured FS-FCLEDs as a function of chemical etching times, the corresponding SEM images of nanotextured n-GaN surface are shown in the background; FDTD simulation results of wave propagating through (b) individual hemisphere surface, (c) individual hemisphere-cones-hybrid surface (color bar represents log scale of electric intensity).

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