Abstract

We fabricate a Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based optical isolator using a silicon-wire waveguide with magneto-optic garnet cladding using direct bonding techniques. Using Si-wire waveguides, the size of the device is greatly reduced from that of our previous device. We investigate surface-activated direct bonding with nitrogen plasma treatment, which shows better bonding results than oxygen plasma treatment. A large magneto-optic phase shift of 0.8π and an optical isolation of 18 dB are obtained at a wavelength of 1322 nm.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optical isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation monde conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Wideband operation of Mach-Zehnder interferomertic magneto-optical isolator using phase adjustment,” Opt. Express15(20), 13446–13450 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and characterization of an InGaAsP/InP active waveguide optical isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE mode nonreciprocal attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 38–43 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
  7. L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Chen, G. Jiang, Y. Hao, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of nonreciprocal phase shift by using nanoscale air gap,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1335–1337 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, “Nonreciprocal propagation characteristics of YIG thin film,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.30(6), 922–925 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Nonreciprocal propagation in magnetooptic YIG rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(7), 711–714 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, “Effects of wafer precleaning and plasma irradiation to wafer surfaces on plasma-assisted surface-activated direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 086204 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Shintaku and T. Uno, “Preparation of Ce-substituted Yttrium iron garnet films for magneto-optic waveguide devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35(Part 1, No. 9A9A), 4689–4691 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. Chen, G. Jiang, Y. Hao, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of nonreciprocal phase shift by using nanoscale air gap,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1335–1337 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, “Effects of wafer precleaning and plasma irradiation to wafer surfaces on plasma-assisted surface-activated direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 086204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and characterization of an InGaAsP/InP active waveguide optical isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE mode nonreciprocal attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation monde conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Shintaku and T. Uno, “Preparation of Ce-substituted Yttrium iron garnet films for magneto-optic waveguide devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35(Part 1, No. 9A9A), 4689–4691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optical isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Nonreciprocal propagation in magnetooptic YIG rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(7), 711–714 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, “Nonreciprocal propagation characteristics of YIG thin film,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.30(6), 922–925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ando, K.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optical isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Chen, R.

Cohen, O.

Dagens, B.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Decobert, J.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dötsch, H.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fujita, J.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

Gouezigou, O. L.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Hao, Y.

Hsieh, I.-W.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inuzuka, H.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Nonreciprocal propagation in magnetooptic YIG rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(7), 711–714 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Jones, R.

Keyvavinia, S.

Kikuchi, T.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Nonreciprocal propagation in magnetooptic YIG rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(7), 711–714 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koshizuka, N.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optical isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kromer, H.

Large, L.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Levy, M.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Make, D.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Mizumoto, T.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, “Effects of wafer precleaning and plasma irradiation to wafer surfaces on plasma-assisted surface-activated direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 086204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Wideband operation of Mach-Zehnder interferomertic magneto-optical isolator using phase adjustment,” Opt. Express15(20), 13446–13450 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, “Nonreciprocal propagation characteristics of YIG thin film,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.30(6), 922–925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Moeyrsoon, B.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Naito, Y.

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, “Nonreciprocal propagation characteristics of YIG thin film,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.30(6), 922–925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

Okamura, Y.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Nonreciprocal propagation in magnetooptic YIG rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(7), 711–714 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optical isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Parys, W. V.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Pintus, P.

Roelkens, G.

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, H.

Shintaku, T.

T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation monde conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Shintaku and T. Uno, “Preparation of Ce-substituted Yttrium iron garnet films for magneto-optic waveguide devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35(Part 1, No. 9A9A), 4689–4691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, Y.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Wideband operation of Mach-Zehnder interferomertic magneto-optical isolator using phase adjustment,” Opt. Express15(20), 13446–13450 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takei, R.

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, “Effects of wafer precleaning and plasma irradiation to wafer surfaces on plasma-assisted surface-activated direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 086204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Tien, M.-C.

Uno, T.

T. Shintaku and T. Uno, “Preparation of Ce-substituted Yttrium iron garnet films for magneto-optic waveguide devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35(Part 1, No. 9A9A), 4689–4691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Roy, W.

Vanheertum, R.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Vanwolleghem, M.

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Wang, M.

Wilkens, L.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Nonreciprocal propagation in magnetooptic YIG rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(7), 711–714 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yokoi, H.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, “Effects of wafer precleaning and plasma irradiation to wafer surfaces on plasma-assisted surface-activated direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 086204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magneto-optical isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation monde conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Parys, B. Moeyrsoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Large, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, “Nonreciprocal propagation characteristics of YIG thin film,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.30(6), 922–925 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Nonreciprocal propagation in magnetooptic YIG rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.4(7), 711–714 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and characterization of an InGaAsP/InP active waveguide optical isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE mode nonreciprocal attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, “Effects of wafer precleaning and plasma irradiation to wafer surfaces on plasma-assisted surface-activated direct bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 086204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Shintaku and T. Uno, “Preparation of Ce-substituted Yttrium iron garnet films for magneto-optic waveguide devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35(Part 1, No. 9A9A), 4689–4691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nonreciprocal phase shift as a function of the interlayer thickness between Si and Ce:YIG at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The refractive indices of the interlayer are assumed as air (1.0), BCB (1.5), and YIG (2.2). The Faraday rotation coefficient of Ce:YIG is –4500 deg/cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of MZI optical isolator with Si-wire waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated nonreciprocal phase shift as a function of Si height and width at a wavelength of 1270 nm. The Faraday rotation coefficient is –7900 deg/cm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup of our apparatus for surface activated bonding. (b) Schematic of bonded samples. Backside of the garnet is chamfered the corner. (c) Photograph of samples of Ce:YIG/SGGG chips bonded on SOI.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of SOI and Ce:YIG after N2 plasma exposure as a function of exposure time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Microscopic image of fabricated MZI optical isolator with Si-wire waveguides, and (b) photograph of isolator array.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured transmission spectra of the MZI isolator for forward and backward propagation. Dashed lines show the transmission when no external magnetic field is applied.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavelength dependence of nonreciprocal wavelength shift (Δλ), FSR, and degree of NPS normalized by π.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated NPS wavelength dependence for the 0.3 μm square Si-wire waveguide with Ce:YIG upper cladding layer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured transmission spectra of the MZI isolator and adjacent straight waveguides “with” or “without” Ce:YIG cladding region.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Silicon-Based Magneto-Optical Isolators

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