Abstract

A new type of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) was designed and fabricated. The new HNLF was engineered to reduce dispersion shift due to transverse fluctuations while maintaining the modal confinement superior to that of the conventional fibers. The new design strategy was validated by the measurements of the global and local dispersive characteristics under considerable core and index profile deformation induced by tensile stress, which indicated that the dispersive and phase matching characteristics of the fiber did not change even under the highest tensile stress. The characteristics effectively decoupled tension-based Brillouin suppression from phase-matching impairments in parametric mixers for the first time. The new HNLF was used to demonstrate the first coherence-preserving mixer operating in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) band. The SWIR mixer was driven by continuous-wave near-infrared (NIR) pump and did not require pump phase dithering to suppress Brillouin scattering.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, and S. Radic, “A new class of high-resolution measurements of arbitrary-dispersion fibers: localization of four-photon mixing process,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 364–375 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Galili, J. Zu, H. C. Mulvadm, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbits/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express17, 2182–2187 (2009).

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fiber and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, “Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron.88(C), 859–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(10), 1842–1851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie, and G. P. Agrawal, “Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics52(1), 1072–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1518–1522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Agrawal, G. P.

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie, and G. P. Agrawal, “Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics52(1), 1072–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alic, N.

Andrekson, P. A.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aparicio, J. M.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asimakis, S.

Boskovic, A.

Brener, I.

Brès, C.-S.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, A. Danicic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Performance of self-seeded parametric multicasting of analog signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(21), 1570–1572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, S. Zlatanovic, C.-S. Brès, S. Moro, F. Gholami, A. Peric, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Transmission of 640-Gb/s RZ-OOK Channel over 100-km SSMF by wavelength-transparent conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 516–523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chávez Boggio, J. M.

Chávez-Boggio, J. M.

Chernikov, S. V.

Choi, D.-Y.

Clausen, A. T.

Danicic, A.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, A. Danicic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Performance of self-seeded parametric multicasting of analog signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(21), 1570–1572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Finazzi, V.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fragnito, H. L.

Frampton, K.

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galili, M.

Gholami, F.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Hirano, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fiber and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hodelin, J.

Imai, T.

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1518–1522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

Kazovsky, L. G.

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, F.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

Lee, D. D.

Lenz, G.

Levring, O. A.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

Lundström, C.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, “Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron.88(C), 859–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie, and G. P. Agrawal, “Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics52(1), 1072–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitra, P. P.

Monro, T. M.

Moore, R. C.

Moro, S.

Mulvadm, H. C.

Myslivets, E.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, A. Danicic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Performance of self-seeded parametric multicasting of analog signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(21), 1570–1572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, S. Zlatanovic, C.-S. Brès, S. Moro, F. Gholami, A. Peric, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Transmission of 640-Gb/s RZ-OOK Channel over 100-km SSMF by wavelength-transparent conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 516–523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, and S. Radic, “A new class of high-resolution measurements of arbitrary-dispersion fibers: localization of four-photon mixing process,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 364–375 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fiber and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niklès, M.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(10), 1842–1851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fiber and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fiber and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Pelusi, M.

Peric, A.

Petropoulos, P.

Philen, D. L.

Radic, S.

S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 670–680 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. P.-P. Kuo and S. Radic, “Highly nonlinear fiber with dispersive characteristic invariant to fabrication fluctuations,” Opt. Express20(7), 7716–7725 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, S. Zlatanovic, C.-S. Brès, S. Moro, F. Gholami, A. Peric, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Transmission of 640-Gb/s RZ-OOK Channel over 100-km SSMF by wavelength-transparent conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 516–523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, P. F. Wysocki, and S. Radic, “Simultaneous wavelength-swept generation in NIR and SWIR abdns over comined 329-nm band using swept-pump fiber optical parametric oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 410–416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, A. Danicic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Performance of self-seeded parametric multicasting of analog signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(21), 1570–1572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chávez-Boggio, S. Moro, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Tunable parametric all-fiber short-wavelength IR transmitter,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 443–447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, and S. Radic, “A new class of high-resolution measurements of arbitrary-dispersion fibers: localization of four-photon mixing process,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 364–375 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, “Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron.88(C), 859–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Robert, P. A.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(10), 1842–1851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Sanghera, J.

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, L. B.

Slusher, R. E.

Stossel, B.

Tadakuma, M.

Takahashi, M.

Taylor, J. R.

Thévenaz, L.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(10), 1842–1851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiberg, A. O. J.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, A. Danicic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Performance of self-seeded parametric multicasting of analog signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(21), 1570–1572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, S. Zlatanovic, C.-S. Brès, S. Moro, F. Gholami, A. Peric, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Transmission of 640-Gb/s RZ-OOK Channel over 100-km SSMF by wavelength-transparent conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 516–523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Windmiller, J. R.

Wong, K. K.-Y.

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, P. F.

Yagi, T.

Yoshizawa, N.

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1518–1522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie, and G. P. Agrawal, “Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics52(1), 1072–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zlatanovic, S.

Zu, J.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fiber and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 670–680 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, A. Danicic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Performance of self-seeded parametric multicasting of analog signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(21), 1570–1572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, “Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron.88(C), 859–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, P. F. Wysocki, and S. Radic, “Simultaneous wavelength-swept generation in NIR and SWIR abdns over comined 329-nm band using swept-pump fiber optical parametric oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 410–416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Takahashi, M. Tadakuma, and T. Yagi, “Dispersion and Brillouin managed HNLFs by strain control techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 59–64 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, A. O. J. Wiberg, S. Zlatanovic, C.-S. Brès, S. Moro, F. Gholami, A. Peric, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Transmission of 640-Gb/s RZ-OOK Channel over 100-km SSMF by wavelength-transparent conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 516–523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, and S. Radic, “A new class of high-resolution measurements of arbitrary-dispersion fibers: localization of four-photon mixing process,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 364–375 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(10), 1842–1851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1518–1522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chávez-Boggio, S. Moro, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Tunable parametric all-fiber short-wavelength IR transmitter,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 443–447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie, and G. P. Agrawal, “Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics52(1), 1072–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Gholami, S. Zlatanovic, E. Myslivets, S. Moro, B. P.-P. Kuo, C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “10 Gbps Parametric short-wave infrared transmitter,” in Proc. OFC 2011, paper OThC6.

T. Okuno, T. Nakanishi, M. Hirano, and M. Onishi, “Practical considerations for the application of highly nonlinear fibers,” in Proc. OFC 2007, paper OTuJ1.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dispersion profile of the new HNLF and (b) Phase-matching contour of the parametric mixer constructed with the new HNLF. The dashed line in (a) denotes the zero-dispersion position.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated core radius dependency of (a) chromatic dispersion at 1593 nm and (b) zero-dispersion wavelength of a conventional HNLF and the new HNLF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for ZDW fluctuation measurement using pump-wavelength scan method. ASE: amplifier spontaneous emission; TBPF: tunable band-pass filter; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; WDMC: Wavelength-division multiplexing coupler; OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Conversion spectra generated by (a) conventional HNLF and (b) new fiber. The probe wave was at 1298 nm in both cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for measuring Brillouin gain frequency shift induced by tensile strain. ECL: External-cavity laser; EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier; CIR: Circulator; PD: Photodetector; ESA: Electrical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Map of Brillouin gain spectrum shift versus tensile strain. (b) Estimated Brillouin peak gain levels for a HNLF stretched with a linear ramp strain profile and with various maximum strain. The curve was calculated using the Brillouin gain characteristics of the new HNLF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dispersion curves of 100-m fiber sections spooled with zero strain (blue solid line) and 3% strain (red dotted line). The uncertainty is depicted by the error bars on the corresponding curves.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Strain profile applied to the 50-m fiber under test. Right column shows the Brillouin scattering spectra of (b) the untreated fiber, and (c) the stretched fiber. Frequency-shifted Brillouin gain peaks are marked by red arrows in (c).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Power transfer characteristics of (a) the untreated and (b) stretched fibers, showing the Brillouin scattering threshold. The dashed line in (a) shows the extrapolation of the Rayleigh-scattering contribution in the back-reflected power. The Brillouin scattering threshold is denoted as Pth in (a).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dispersion curves of the untreated (blue solid line) and stretched fibers (red dotted line). The uncertainty is depicted by the error bars on the corresponding curves.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Conversion efficiencies against pump wavelength for (a) untreated fiber and (b) stretched fiber.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

CW coherent SWIR-band mixer setup. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; TBPF: tunable band-pass filter; PC: polarization controller; WDMC: WDM coupler; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Mixer output spectrum captured at 10% tap; (b) Conversion efficiency plotted against pump power levels measured at the fiber input. Inset in (a) shows 2-nm spectral slices of signal (red dashed) and idler (blue solid). OSA resolution bandwidth: 0.5 nm for full spectrum, 0.05 nm for zoom-ins.

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