Abstract

We present a laser plasma based x-ray microscope for the water window employing a high-average power laser system for plasma generation. At 90 W laser power a brightness of 7.4 x 1011 photons/(s x sr x μm2) was measured for the nitrogen Lyα line emission at 2.478 nm. Using a multilayer condenser mirror with 0.3 % reflectivity 106 photons/(μm2 x s) were obtained in the object plane. Microscopy performed at a laser power of 60 W resolves 40 nm lines with an exposure time of 60 s. The exposure time can be further reduced to 20 s by the use of new multilayer condenser optics and operating the laser at its full power of 130 W.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2012

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Rehbein, S. Werner, and R. Follath, “Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 212–223 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express20, 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa, E. Anderson, and P. Naulleau, “Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Express20, 9777–9783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20, 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Benk, D. Schäfer, T. Wilhein, and K. Bergmann, “High power soft x-ray source based on a discharge plasma,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP), Proc. of the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy186, 012024–1–3 (2009).

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope,” Opt. Express17, 11057–11065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 435031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Adam, J.-P. Moy, and Susini, “Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission microscopy,” J. Microscopy197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Schneider, “Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy75, 85–104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, J.-F.

J.-F. Adam, J.-P. Moy, and Susini, “Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B. N.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

Benk, M.

M. Benk, D. Schäfer, T. Wilhein, and K. Bergmann, “High power soft x-ray source based on a discharge plasma,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP), Proc. of the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy186, 012024–1–3 (2009).

M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schaefer, and T. Wilhein, “Compact soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge light source,” Opt. Lett.33, 2359–2361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berglund, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission microscopy,” J. Microscopy197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

M. Benk, D. Schäfer, T. Wilhein, and K. Bergmann, “High power soft x-ray source based on a discharge plasma,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP), Proc. of the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy186, 012024–1–3 (2009).

M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schaefer, and T. Wilhein, “Compact soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge light source,” Opt. Lett.33, 2359–2361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertilson, M.

Chae, J. S.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

Choi, K.-S.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chon, K. S.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christakou, A. E.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, A. E. Christakou, and H. M. Hertz, “Laboratory soft x-ray microscope for cryotomography of biological specimens,” Opt. Lett.36, 2728–2730 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

Follath, R.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Rehbein, S. Werner, and R. Follath, “Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 212–223 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guttmann, P.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express20, 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Rehbein, S. Werner, and R. Follath, “Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 212–223 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gweon, D. G.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hambach, D.

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heim, S.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, A. E. Christakou, and H. M. Hertz, “Laboratory soft x-ray microscope for cryotomography of biological specimens,” Opt. Lett.36, 2728–2730 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope,” Opt. Express17, 11057–11065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 435031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission microscopy,” J. Microscopy197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heymann, J. B.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holmberg, A.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, A. E. Christakou, and H. M. Hertz, “Laboratory soft x-ray microscope for cryotomography of biological specimens,” Opt. Lett.36, 2728–2730 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope,” Opt. Express17, 11057–11065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansson, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 435031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jerlström-Hultqvist, J.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G.A.

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D. W.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. H.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. E.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-A

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. G.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. W.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-G.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, Y.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C. A.

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20, 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J.-H.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindblom, M.

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martz, D.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McNally, J. G.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Min, J. Y.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mller, W. G.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moy, J.-P.

J.-F. Adam, J.-P. Moy, and Susini, “Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, F.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, K.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nam, K.-Y.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

Niemann, B.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20, 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peuker, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission microscopy,” J. Microscopy197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rah, S.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Rehbein, S. Werner, and R. Follath, “Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 212–223 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express20, 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reinsprach, J.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

Rudolph, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rymell, L.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission microscopy,” J. Microscopy197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, D.

Schäfer, D.

M. Benk, D. Schäfer, T. Wilhein, and K. Bergmann, “High power soft x-ray source based on a discharge plasma,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP), Proc. of the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy186, 012024–1–3 (2009).

Schmahl, G.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express20, 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Rehbein, S. Werner, and R. Follath, “Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 212–223 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, “Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy75, 85–104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selin, M.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. J.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stollberg, H.

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susini,

J.-F. Adam, J.-P. Moy, and Susini, “Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svärd, S.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takman, P. A. C

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thieme, J.

J. Thieme, “Theoretical investigations of imaging properties of zone plates and zone plate systems using diffraction theory,” in X-ray Microscopy II, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, and H. Rarback, eds. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences 56, Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp 70–79.

Tyliszczak, T.

Vogt, U.

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, A. E. Christakou, and H. M. Hertz, “Laboratory soft x-ray microscope for cryotomography of biological specimens,” Opt. Lett.36, 2728–2730 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope,” Opt. Express17, 11057–11065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 435031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

von Hofsten, O.

Weiss, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Werner, S.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Rehbein, S. Werner, and R. Follath, “Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 212–223 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express20, 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhein, T.

M. Benk, D. Schäfer, T. Wilhein, and K. Bergmann, “High power soft x-ray source based on a discharge plasma,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP), Proc. of the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy186, 012024–1–3 (2009).

M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schaefer, and T. Wilhein, “Compact soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge light source,” Opt. Lett.33, 2359–2361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission microscopy,” J. Microscopy197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K.-H.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. E.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20, 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc.

P. A. C Takman, H. Stollberg, G.A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz “High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226, 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microscopy

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission microscopy,” J. Microscopy197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Struct. Biol.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Rehbein, S. Werner, and R. Follath, “Cryo X-ray microscope with flat sample geometry for correlative fluorescence and nanoscale tomographic imaging,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 212–223 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Hertz, O. von Hofsten, M. Bertilson, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, J. Reinsprach, D. Martz, M. Selin, A. E. Christakou, J. Jerlström-Hultqvist, and S. Svärd, “Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol.177, 267–272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP), Proc. of the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy

M. Benk, D. Schäfer, T. Wilhein, and K. Bergmann, “High power soft x-ray source based on a discharge plasma,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP), Proc. of the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy186, 012024–1–3 (2009).

Nat. Meth.

G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, F. Mueller, K. Nagashima, J. B. Heymann, W. G. Mller, and J. G. McNally, “Three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure resolved by X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Meth.7, 985–987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

K. W. Kim, Y. Kwon, K.-Y. Nam, J.-H. Lim, K.-G. Kim, K. S. Chon, B. H. Kim, D. E. Kim, J. G. Kim, B. N. Ahn, H. J. Shin, S. Rah, K.-H. Kim, J. S. Chae, D. G. Gweon, D. W. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. Y. Min, K.-S. Choi, S. E. Yoon, E.-A Kim, Y. Namba, and K.-H. Yoon, “Compact soft x-ray transmission microscopy with sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol.31, N99–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Rev. Biophys.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopy and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28, 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 435031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Adam, J.-P. Moy, and Susini, “Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, S. Rehbein, D. Hambach, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “A slit grating spectrograph for quantitative soft x-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 1694–1699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

G. Schneider, “Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy75, 85–104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on X-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy84, 3–4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Thieme, “Theoretical investigations of imaging properties of zone plates and zone plate systems using diffraction theory,” in X-ray Microscopy II, D. Sayre, M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, and H. Rarback, eds. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences 56, Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp 70–79.

P. Loosen, M. Höfer, D. Esser, H. Sipma, R. Kasemann, and H. D. Hoffmann, “Advanced INNOSLAB Solid-state-lasers for the generation of bright XUV/EUV-radiation,” Proc. International Workshop on EUV and Soft X-ray Sources2010 http://www.euvlitho.com/2010/P37.pdf .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The arrangement and optical layout of the table top water window x-ray microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser beam in the focus. The lines indicate the dimensions of the liquid nitrogen jet. The beam profile at the laser exit is also shown. The beam in the focus image is rotated by 90 degree to the beam at the laser output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

On the left: Emission spectra of the liquid-nitrogen plasma. On the right: Measured x-ray beam size in the focus of the condenser multilayer mirror at a laser power of 60 W (the pixel size is 13.5 μm, two 2 μm Al filters were additionally placed in front of the CCD).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

On the left: Reflectivity measurements of the multilayer condenser mirrors fabricated by IOF FhG after annealing. The measurements were performed by Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). On the right: Image of the multilayer reflection recorded behind the focus of the multilayer condenser mirror. The image was collected at 20 W laser power. A 2 μm Al filter was additionally placed in front of the CCD camera.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscope images of diatoms and zone plate structures. The images (a)–(c) were taken with a pixel size of 26 nm, the image (d) with a pixel size of 13.5 nm. The exposure times were 2 min for image (a) and (b), 3 min for (c) and 1 min for image (d).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 X-ray flux of the nitrogen plasma emission lines measured with a laser pulse width of 450 ps at a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. The conversion efficiency (CE) in brackets is calculated for isotropic emission in 4π. The pulse energy is measured on the target.

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