Abstract

In this paper a low complexity and energy efficient 45 Gb/s soft-decision optical front-end to be used with soft-decision low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders is demonstrated. The results show that the optical front-end exhibits a net coding gain of 7.06 and 9.62 dB for post forward error correction bit error rate of 10−7 and 10−12 for long block length LDPC(32768,26803) code. The performance over a hard decision front-end is 1.9 dB for this code. It is shown that the soft-decision circuit can also be used as a 2-bit flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), in conjunction with equalization schemes. At bit rate of 15 Gb/s using RS(255,239), LDPC(672,336), (672, 504), (672, 588), and (1440, 1344) used with a 6-tap finite impulse response (FIR) equalizer will result in optical power savings of 3, 5, 7, 9.5 and 10.5 dB, respectively. The 2-bit flash ADC consumes only 2.71 W at 32 GSamples/s. At 45 GSamples/s the power consumption is estimated to be 4.95 W.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. Business News, “Ultrafast Networks Gear-up for Deployment,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 144 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, “Near Shannon Limit Error-Correcting Coding and Decoding: Turbo-Codes,” in Proc. of IEEE Intl. Conf. on Commun., ICC 1993, 2, 1064–1070(1993).
  4. S. Chung, G. Forney, T. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, “On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit,” IEEE Commun. Lett.5(2), 58–60 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Tanner, “A recursive approach to low complexity codes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory27(5), 533–547 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Gallager, “Low-density parity-check codes,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory8(1), 21–28 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Djordjevic, M. Arabaci, and L. L. Minkov, “Next Generation FEC for High-Capacity Communication in Optical Transport Networks (Invited),” J. Lightwave Technol.27(16), 3518–3530 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, “A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I.57(5), 1048–1061 (2010).
  10. D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, “Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q),” IEEE Trans. Commun.55(4), 633–643 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Naderi, S. Mannor, M. Sawan, and W. Gross, “Delayed stochastic decoding of LDPC codes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.59(11), 5617–5626 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC) and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), paper OThL1, 1–3(2010).
  13. T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC) and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), paper OWE2, 1–3 (2009).
  14. M. Sakib, V. Mahalingam, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Optical front-end for soft decision LDPC codes in optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(6), 533–541 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. http://www.discoverysemi.com/
  16. D. Guckenberger, S. Abdalla, C. Bradbury, J. Clymore, P. Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, M. Harrison, S. Jackson, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, C. Lo, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, J. Redman, S. Sahni, B. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Advantages of CMOS photonics for future transceiver applications,” in Proceedings of the 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010, paper Tu.4.C.2, 1–6 (2010).
  17. IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 3c (TG3c), Part 15.3: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for High Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Amendment 2: Millimeter-wave-based Alternative Physical Layer Extension, 79–81(2009).
  18. M. Sakib, T. Huang, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Low-density parity-check coding in ultra wideband over fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1493–1495 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Kschischang, B. Frey, and H. Loeliger, “Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory47(2), 498–519 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Radford, Neal, “Software for Low Density Parity Check Codes,” http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/~radford/ftp/LDPC-2006-02-08/index.html
  21. I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for 40-Gb/s Optical Transmission System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 555–562 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 4th ed. (Wiley, 2010), Ch. 4.
  23. Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Filters, S. Haykin and B. Widrow, eds. (Wiley, 2003).
  24. M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. http://www.hittite.com/
  26. http://www.micram.com/

2012

M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Sakib, V. Mahalingam, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Optical front-end for soft decision LDPC codes in optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(6), 533–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naderi, S. Mannor, M. Sawan, and W. Gross, “Delayed stochastic decoding of LDPC codes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.59(11), 5617–5626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakib, T. Huang, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Low-density parity-check coding in ultra wideband over fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1493–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, “A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I.57(5), 1048–1061 (2010).

Business News, “Ultrafast Networks Gear-up for Deployment,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 144 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, “Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q),” IEEE Trans. Commun.55(4), 633–643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for 40-Gb/s Optical Transmission System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 555–562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Kschischang, B. Frey, and H. Loeliger, “Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory47(2), 498–519 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chung, G. Forney, T. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, “On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit,” IEEE Commun. Lett.5(2), 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. Tanner, “A recursive approach to low complexity codes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory27(5), 533–547 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1962

R. Gallager, “Low-density parity-check codes,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory8(1), 21–28 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Arabaci, M.

Baas, B.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, “A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I.57(5), 1048–1061 (2010).

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chilappagari, S. K.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for 40-Gb/s Optical Transmission System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 555–562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S.

S. Chung, G. Forney, T. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, “On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit,” IEEE Commun. Lett.5(2), 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Declercq, D.

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, “Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q),” IEEE Trans. Commun.55(4), 633–643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, I.

Djordjevic, I. B.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for 40-Gb/s Optical Transmission System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 555–562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forney, G.

S. Chung, G. Forney, T. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, “On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit,” IEEE Commun. Lett.5(2), 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fossorier, M.

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, “Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q),” IEEE Trans. Commun.55(4), 633–643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frey, B.

F. Kschischang, B. Frey, and H. Loeliger, “Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory47(2), 498–519 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gallager, R.

R. Gallager, “Low-density parity-check codes,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory8(1), 21–28 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Gaudet, V.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gross, W.

A. Naderi, S. Mannor, M. Sawan, and W. Gross, “Delayed stochastic decoding of LDPC codes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.59(11), 5617–5626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakib, V. Mahalingam, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Optical front-end for soft decision LDPC codes in optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(6), 533–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakib, T. Huang, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Low-density parity-check coding in ultra wideband over fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1493–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Howard, S.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.

M. Sakib, T. Huang, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Low-density parity-check coding in ultra wideband over fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1493–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hung, H.

M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kschischang, F.

F. Kschischang, B. Frey, and H. Loeliger, “Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory47(2), 498–519 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

M. Sakib, T. Huang, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Low-density parity-check coding in ultra wideband over fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1493–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakib, V. Mahalingam, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Optical front-end for soft decision LDPC codes in optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(6), 533–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loeliger, H.

F. Kschischang, B. Frey, and H. Loeliger, “Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory47(2), 498–519 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mahalingam, V.

Mannor, S.

A. Naderi, S. Mannor, M. Sawan, and W. Gross, “Delayed stochastic decoding of LDPC codes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.59(11), 5617–5626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minkov, L. L.

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohsenin, T.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, “A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I.57(5), 1048–1061 (2010).

Naderi, A.

A. Naderi, S. Mannor, M. Sawan, and W. Gross, “Delayed stochastic decoding of LDPC codes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.59(11), 5617–5626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, T.

S. Chung, G. Forney, T. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, “On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit,” IEEE Commun. Lett.5(2), 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakib, M.

M. Sakib, V. Mahalingam, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Optical front-end for soft decision LDPC codes in optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(6), 533–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakib, T. Huang, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Low-density parity-check coding in ultra wideband over fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1493–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sankaranarayanan, S.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for 40-Gb/s Optical Transmission System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 555–562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sawan, M.

A. Naderi, S. Mannor, M. Sawan, and W. Gross, “Delayed stochastic decoding of LDPC codes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.59(11), 5617–5626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, R.

R. Tanner, “A recursive approach to low complexity codes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory27(5), 533–547 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tehrani, S.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Truong, D.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, “A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I.57(5), 1048–1061 (2010).

Urbanke, R.

S. Chung, G. Forney, T. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, “On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit,” IEEE Commun. Lett.5(2), 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vasic, B.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for 40-Gb/s Optical Transmission System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 555–562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winstead, C.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

S. Chung, G. Forney, T. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, “On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit,” IEEE Commun. Lett.5(2), 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for 40-Gb/s Optical Transmission System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 555–562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits

M. Chen, Y. Shih, C. Lin, H. Hung, and J. Lee, “A fully-integrated 40-Gb/s transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 627–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Sakib, T. Huang, W. Gross, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Low-density parity-check coding in ultra wideband over fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1493–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, “A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I.57(5), 1048–1061 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, “Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q),” IEEE Trans. Commun.55(4), 633–643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

F. Kschischang, B. Frey, and H. Loeliger, “Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory47(2), 498–519 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Tanner, “A recursive approach to low complexity codes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory27(5), 533–547 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, “Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5955–5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Naderi, S. Mannor, M. Sawan, and W. Gross, “Delayed stochastic decoding of LDPC codes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.59(11), 5617–5626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IRE Trans. Inf. Theory

R. Gallager, “Low-density parity-check codes,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory8(1), 21–28 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Nat. Photonics

Business News, “Ultrafast Networks Gear-up for Deployment,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 144 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Radford, Neal, “Software for Low Density Parity Check Codes,” http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/~radford/ftp/LDPC-2006-02-08/index.html

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, “Near Shannon Limit Error-Correcting Coding and Decoding: Turbo-Codes,” in Proc. of IEEE Intl. Conf. on Commun., ICC 1993, 2, 1064–1070(1993).

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC) and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), paper OThL1, 1–3(2010).

T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC) and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), paper OWE2, 1–3 (2009).

http://www.discoverysemi.com/

D. Guckenberger, S. Abdalla, C. Bradbury, J. Clymore, P. Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, M. Harrison, S. Jackson, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, C. Lo, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, J. Redman, S. Sahni, B. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Advantages of CMOS photonics for future transceiver applications,” in Proceedings of the 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010, paper Tu.4.C.2, 1–6 (2010).

IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 3c (TG3c), Part 15.3: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for High Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Amendment 2: Millimeter-wave-based Alternative Physical Layer Extension, 79–81(2009).

http://www.hittite.com/

http://www.micram.com/

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 4th ed. (Wiley, 2010), Ch. 4.

Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Filters, S. Haykin and B. Widrow, eds. (Wiley, 2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Soft-decision circuit architecture with x % of the optical power of the received optical signal used by the hard-decision segment (bottom) and (1-x) % used by the soft-decision segment (top).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental test bed for performance evaluation of the soft-decision circuit for single-mode transmission link.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LDPC(32768,26803) super frame loaded in to PPG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental test bed for performance evaluation over 500 m of multi-mode fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decoding performance of the soft-decision circuit with LDPC(32768,26803).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Receiver sensitivity (at BER = 10−7) measured as a function of the bit rate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER curves measured at different optical power for different error correction codes.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Logic table for hard and soft-decision.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Power consumption of the soft-decision optical front end architecture [25, 26].

Metrics