Abstract

We present a new synchronized design for flattening the passband of an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) over a broad wavelength range of 90 nm. A wavelength-insensitive 3-dB balanced coupler is designed to be used in duplicate in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI); the phase deviation created by one of the balanced couplers is cancelled by flipping the other coupler around. This MZI is arranged in tandem with the AWG such that the output signal of the MZI is the input signal of the AWG. We demonstrate a 5-channel, 18-nm-spacing AWG with a 0.5-dB bandwidth of 12 nm over a 90-nm spectral range. A low-loss cascaded AWG system is demonstrated by using the MZI-synchronized flat-top AWG as a primary filter.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Ismail, L. P. Choo-Smith, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, A. C. Baclig, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Raman spectroscopy with an integrated arrayed-waveguide grating,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4629–4631 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Ismail, B. Imran Akca, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, and A. Driessen, “Integrated approach to laser delivery and confocal signal detection,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2741–2743 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett.32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett.20(1), 43–45 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, “Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1088–1090 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, “Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(7), 918–920 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. Little and T. E. Murphy, “Design rules for maximally flat wavelength-insensitive optical power dividers using Mach-Zehnder structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(12), 1607–1609 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 577–578 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Takada, H. Yamada, and K. Okamoto, “320-channel multiplexer consisting of a 100 GHz-spaced parent AWG and 10 GHz-spaced subsidiary AWGs,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 824–826 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, H. Yamada, Y. Hibino, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel AWG filter achieved by tandem connection of primary and secondary AWGs,” in Proceeding of European. Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE 2000), pp. PD3–8.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “Low-loss 10-GHz-spaced tandem multi/demultiplexer with more than 1000 channels using a 1×5 interference multi/demultiplexer as a primary filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 59–61 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2004 (1)

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, “Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1088–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, “Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(7), 918–920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 56–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “5 GHz-spaced 4200-channel two-stage tandem demultiplexer for ultra-multi-wavelength light source using supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett.38(12), 572–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “Low-loss 10-GHz-spaced tandem multi/demultiplexer with more than 1000 channels using a 1×5 interference multi/demultiplexer as a primary filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 59–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 577–578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and K. Okamoto, “320-channel multiplexer consisting of a 100 GHz-spaced parent AWG and 10 GHz-spaced subsidiary AWGs,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 824–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. E. Little and T. E. Murphy, “Design rules for maximally flat wavelength-insensitive optical power dividers using Mach-Zehnder structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(12), 1607–1609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett.32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Abe, M.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “5 GHz-spaced 4200-channel two-stage tandem demultiplexer for ultra-multi-wavelength light source using supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett.38(12), 572–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “Low-loss 10-GHz-spaced tandem multi/demultiplexer with more than 1000 channels using a 1×5 interference multi/demultiplexer as a primary filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 59–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 577–578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Akca, B. I.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Amersfoort, M. R.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baclig, A. C.

Brainard, R.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caspers, P. J.

Choo-Smith, L. P.

de Ridder, R. M.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, “Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1088–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, “Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(7), 918–920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 56–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Egan, E.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fondeur, B.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gopinathan, N.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Imran Akca, B.

Ismail, N.

Kalkman, J.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, H. P.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little and T. E. Murphy, “Design rules for maximally flat wavelength-insensitive optical power dividers using Mach-Zehnder structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(12), 1607–1609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

B. E. Little and T. E. Murphy, “Design rules for maximally flat wavelength-insensitive optical power dividers using Mach-Zehnder structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(12), 1607–1609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamoto, D.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. D.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “5 GHz-spaced 4200-channel two-stage tandem demultiplexer for ultra-multi-wavelength light source using supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett.38(12), 572–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “Low-loss 10-GHz-spaced tandem multi/demultiplexer with more than 1000 channels using a 1×5 interference multi/demultiplexer as a primary filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 59–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 577–578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and K. Okamoto, “320-channel multiplexer consisting of a 100 GHz-spaced parent AWG and 10 GHz-spaced subsidiary AWGs,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 824–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett.32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett.20(1), 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pafchek, R.

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, “Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1088–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, “Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(7), 918–920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 56–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Puppels, G. J.

Rajhel, A.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sala, A. L.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sengo, G.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “5 GHz-spaced 4200-channel two-stage tandem demultiplexer for ultra-multi-wavelength light source using supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett.38(12), 572–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “Low-loss 10-GHz-spaced tandem multi/demultiplexer with more than 1000 channels using a 1×5 interference multi/demultiplexer as a primary filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 59–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 577–578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shunk, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 56–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, “Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(7), 918–920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, “Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1088–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 56–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett.32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Ismail, B. Imran Akca, F. Sun, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, and A. Driessen, “Integrated approach to laser delivery and confocal signal detection,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2741–2743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “Low-loss 10-GHz-spaced tandem multi/demultiplexer with more than 1000 channels using a 1×5 interference multi/demultiplexer as a primary filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 59–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “5 GHz-spaced 4200-channel two-stage tandem demultiplexer for ultra-multi-wavelength light source using supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett.38(12), 572–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 577–578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and K. Okamoto, “320-channel multiplexer consisting of a 100 GHz-spaced parent AWG and 10 GHz-spaced subsidiary AWGs,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 824–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thekdi, S.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaidyanathan, A.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wörhoff, K.

Yamada, H.

B. Fondeur, A. L. Sala, H. Yamada, R. Brainard, E. Egan, S. Thekdi, N. Gopinathan, D. Nakamoto, and A. Vaidyanathan, “Ultra wide AWG with hyper-Gaussian profile,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(12), 2628–2630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and K. Okamoto, “320-channel multiplexer consisting of a 100 GHz-spaced parent AWG and 10 GHz-spaced subsidiary AWGs,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 824–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett.20(1), 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett.32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett.32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and K. Okamoto, “320-channel multiplexer consisting of a 100 GHz-spaced parent AWG and 10 GHz-spaced subsidiary AWGs,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 824–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “5 GHz-spaced 4200-channel two-stage tandem demultiplexer for ultra-multi-wavelength light source using supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett.38(12), 572–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Akca, V. D. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, F. Sun, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Wörhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

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C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, “Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(8), 1088–1090 (2003).
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C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 56–58 (2002).
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C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, “Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(7), 918–920 (2003).
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K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 577–578 (2001).
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K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, “Low-loss 10-GHz-spaced tandem multi/demultiplexer with more than 1000 channels using a 1×5 interference multi/demultiplexer as a primary filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 59–61 (2002).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (3)

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K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, H. Yamada, Y. Hibino, and K. Okamoto, “10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel AWG filter achieved by tandem connection of primary and secondary AWGs,” in Proceeding of European. Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE 2000), pp. PD3–8.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Change in optical field at the MZI and 1st slab region interface of the AWG, as the wavelength is changed. (b) Design parameters of the 3-dB balanced coupler. c) Schematic of the cascaded AWG system with a MZI-synchronized AWG using 3-dB balanced couplers. Electrical heaters are placed on both arms of the MZI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulation and (b) measurement result of the 3-dB balanced coupler. The wavelength dependence of the coupler increases at longer wavelengths due to processing fluctuations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) MZI-synchronized AWG spectrum, exhibiting a 0.5-dB-bandwidth of 12 nm and 1 dB excess loss at the central channel. The dashed lines are the simulated transmission spectra of the center and the 5th output channels in case of the non-ideal balanced coupler given in Fig. 2(b). (b) Thermal tuning effect on the transmission spectrum of one of the output channels of the MZI-synchronized AWG; black solid line: heater turned off, red dashed line: heater turned on.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measurement result of the cascaded AWG system with MZI-synchronized, flat-top primary AWG and five 1 × 51 secondary AWGs. The dashed line is the transmission response of the MZI-synchronized primary AWG, which acts as an envelope for the secondary AWGs. (b) Close-up of the 4th secondary AWG transmission results.

Equations (1)

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S= cos 2 (θ) sin 2 ( ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 )+ sin 2 (θ) sin 2 ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ),

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