Abstract

Scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) is a particularly useful method for studying the spatial distribution of trace metals in biological samples. Here we demonstrate the utility of combining coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) with XFM for imaging biological samples to simultaneously produce high-resolution and high-contrast transmission images and quantitative elemental maps. The reconstructed transmission function yields morphological details which contextualise the elemental maps. We report enhancement of the spatial resolution in both the transmission and fluorescence images beyond that of the X-ray optics. The freshwater diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana was imaged to demonstrate the benefits of combining these techniques that have complementary contrast mechanisms.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  25. R. A. Armstrong, C. Lee, J. I. Hedges, S. Honjo, and S. G. Wakeham, “A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals,” Deep-Sea Res.Pt. 249, 219–236 (2002).
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  29. W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik35, 237–246 (1972).
  32. J. Fienup, T. Crimmins, and W. Holsztynski, “Reconstruction of the support of an object from the support of its autocorrelation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A72, 610–624 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lens transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 023903 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]

2011

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. Ryan, R. Kirkham, R. Hough, G. Moorhead, D. Siddons, M. de Jonge, D. Paterson, G. De Geronimo, D. Howard, and J. Cleverley, “Elemental x-ray imaging using the maia detector array: The benefits and challenges of large solid-angle,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A619, 37–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Holzner, M. Feser, S. Vogt, B. Hornberger, S. B. Baines, and C. Jacobsen, “Zernike phase contrast in scanning microscopy with x-rays,” Nat. Phys.6, 883–887 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High resolution scanning x-ray diffrction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science319, 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hornberger, M. D. de Jonge, M. Feser, P. Holl, C. Jacobsen, D. Legnini, P. Rehak, L. Struder, and S. Vogt, “Differential phase contrast with a segmented detector in a scanning x-ray microprobe,” J. Synch. Rad.15, 355–362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science316, 1153–1158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science317, 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell Biochem.99, 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Error tolerance of an iterative phase retrieval algorithm for movable illumination microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy103, 153–164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lens transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

B. S. Twining, S. B. Baines, N. S. Fisher, J. Maser, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, A. Tovar-Sanchez, and S. A. San̅udo-Wilhelmy, “Quantifying trace elements in individual aquatic protist cells with a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe,” Anal. Chem.75, 3806–3816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Thompson and C. Orvig, “Boon and bane of metal ions in medicine,” Science300, 936–939 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, and E. Pernigotti, “Medipix2: A 64-k pixel readout chip with 55 μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.49, 2279–2283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Armstrong, C. Lee, J. I. Hedges, S. Honjo, and S. G. Wakeham, “A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals,” Deep-Sea Res.Pt. 249, 219–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. Nagy and Z. Strakos, “Enforcing nonnegativity in image reconstruction algorithms,” in Proc. SPIE4121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. O. Buesseler, “The decoupling of production and particulate export in the surface ocean,” Global Biogeochem. Cy.12, 297–310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15, 1662–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. A. Snigirev, I. I. Snigreva, V. G. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. A. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66, 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Hare, “Aquatic insects and trace metals: Bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity,” Crc. Cr. Rev. Toxicol.22, 327–369 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. Fienup, T. Crimmins, and W. Holsztynski, “Reconstruction of the support of an object from the support of its autocorrelation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A72, 610–624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik35, 237–246 (1972).

Abbey, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allin, M.

W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. A.

R. A. Armstrong, C. Lee, J. I. Hedges, S. Honjo, and S. G. Wakeham, “A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals,” Deep-Sea Res.Pt. 249, 219–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Augustine, F.

W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baines, S. B.

M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Holzner, M. Feser, S. Vogt, B. Hornberger, S. B. Baines, and C. Jacobsen, “Zernike phase contrast in scanning microscopy with x-rays,” Nat. Phys.6, 883–887 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Twining, S. B. Baines, N. S. Fisher, J. Maser, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, A. Tovar-Sanchez, and S. A. San̅udo-Wilhelmy, “Quantifying trace elements in individual aquatic protist cells with a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe,” Anal. Chem.75, 3806–3816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science319, 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science317, 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buesseler, K. O.

K. O. Buesseler, “The decoupling of production and particulate export in the surface ocean,” Global Biogeochem. Cy.12, 297–310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High resolution scanning x-ray diffrction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, and E. Pernigotti, “Medipix2: A 64-k pixel readout chip with 55 μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.49, 2279–2283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. N.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cleverley, J.

C. Ryan, R. Kirkham, R. Hough, G. Moorhead, D. Siddons, M. de Jonge, D. Paterson, G. De Geronimo, D. Howard, and J. Cleverley, “Elemental x-ray imaging using the maia detector array: The benefits and challenges of large solid-angle,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A619, 37–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cowley, J. M.

J. M. Cowley, Diffraction Physics, 3rd ed. (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1995).

Crimmins, T.

J. Fienup, T. Crimmins, and W. Holsztynski, “Reconstruction of the support of an object from the support of its autocorrelation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A72, 610–624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High resolution scanning x-ray diffrction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Geronimo, G.

C. Ryan, R. Kirkham, R. Hough, G. Moorhead, D. Siddons, M. de Jonge, D. Paterson, G. De Geronimo, D. Howard, and J. Cleverley, “Elemental x-ray imaging using the maia detector array: The benefits and challenges of large solid-angle,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A619, 37–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M.

C. Ryan, R. Kirkham, R. Hough, G. Moorhead, D. Siddons, M. de Jonge, D. Paterson, G. De Geronimo, D. Howard, and J. Cleverley, “Elemental x-ray imaging using the maia detector array: The benefits and challenges of large solid-angle,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A619, 37–43 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M. D.

M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Hornberger, M. D. de Jonge, M. Feser, P. Holl, C. Jacobsen, D. Legnini, P. Rehak, L. Struder, and S. Vogt, “Differential phase contrast with a segmented detector in a scanning x-ray microprobe,” J. Synch. Rad.15, 355–362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dempsey, G. T.

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science317, 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhal, B. B.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz, J.

M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High resolution scanning x-ray diffrction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinapoli, R.

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, and E. Pernigotti, “Medipix2: A 64-k pixel readout chip with 55 μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.49, 2279–2283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P.

C. B. Field, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski, “Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components,” Science281, 237–240 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

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C. Holzner, M. Feser, S. Vogt, B. Hornberger, S. B. Baines, and C. Jacobsen, “Zernike phase contrast in scanning microscopy with x-rays,” Nat. Phys.6, 883–887 (2010).
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B. Hornberger, M. D. de Jonge, M. Feser, P. Holl, C. Jacobsen, D. Legnini, P. Rehak, L. Struder, and S. Vogt, “Differential phase contrast with a segmented detector in a scanning x-ray microprobe,” J. Synch. Rad.15, 355–362 (2008).
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C. Holzner, M. Feser, S. Vogt, B. Hornberger, S. B. Baines, and C. Jacobsen, “Zernike phase contrast in scanning microscopy with x-rays,” Nat. Phys.6, 883–887 (2010).
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B. Hornberger, M. D. de Jonge, M. Feser, P. Holl, C. Jacobsen, D. Legnini, P. Rehak, L. Struder, and S. Vogt, “Differential phase contrast with a segmented detector in a scanning x-ray microprobe,” J. Synch. Rad.15, 355–362 (2008).
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M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
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W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
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M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
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B. Hornberger, M. D. de Jonge, M. Feser, P. Holl, C. Jacobsen, D. Legnini, P. Rehak, L. Struder, and S. Vogt, “Differential phase contrast with a segmented detector in a scanning x-ray microprobe,” J. Synch. Rad.15, 355–362 (2008).
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M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
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M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
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C. Ryan, R. Kirkham, R. Hough, G. Moorhead, D. Siddons, M. de Jonge, D. Paterson, G. De Geronimo, D. Howard, and J. Cleverley, “Elemental x-ray imaging using the maia detector array: The benefits and challenges of large solid-angle,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A619, 37–43 (2010).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
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T. Paunesku, S. Vogt, J. Maser, B. Lai, and G. Woloschak, “X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Cell Biochem.99, 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
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X. Llopart, M. Campbell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, and E. Pernigotti, “Medipix2: A 64-k pixel readout chip with 55 μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.49, 2279–2283 (2002).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 195505 (2001).
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B. Hornberger, M. D. de Jonge, M. Feser, P. Holl, C. Jacobsen, D. Legnini, P. Rehak, L. Struder, and S. Vogt, “Differential phase contrast with a segmented detector in a scanning x-ray microprobe,” J. Synch. Rad.15, 355–362 (2008).
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I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Error tolerance of an iterative phase retrieval algorithm for movable illumination microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy103, 153–164 (2005).
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H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lens transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 023903 (2004).
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C. Ryan, R. Kirkham, R. Hough, G. Moorhead, D. Siddons, M. de Jonge, D. Paterson, G. De Geronimo, D. Howard, and J. Cleverley, “Elemental x-ray imaging using the maia detector array: The benefits and challenges of large solid-angle,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A619, 37–43 (2010).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
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X. Llopart, M. Campbell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, and E. Pernigotti, “Medipix2: A 64-k pixel readout chip with 55 μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.49, 2279–2283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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B. S. Twining, S. B. Baines, N. S. Fisher, J. Maser, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, A. Tovar-Sanchez, and S. A. San̅udo-Wilhelmy, “Quantifying trace elements in individual aquatic protist cells with a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe,” Anal. Chem.75, 3806–3816 (2003).
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R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik35, 237–246 (1972).

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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15, 1662–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Snigirev, I. I. Snigreva, V. G. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. A. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66, 5486–5492 (1995).
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[CrossRef]

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A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
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M. D. de Jonge, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, B. S. Twining, K. Ignatyev, J. Diaz, D. L. Howard, D. Legnini, A. Miceli, I. McNulty, C. J. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative 3D elemental microtomography of cyclotella meneghiniana at 400-nm resolution,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 15676–15680 (2010).
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B. S. Twining, S. B. Baines, N. S. Fisher, J. Maser, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, A. Tovar-Sanchez, and S. A. San̅udo-Wilhelmy, “Quantifying trace elements in individual aquatic protist cells with a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe,” Anal. Chem.75, 3806–3816 (2003).
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W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
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W. Vernon, M. Allin, R. Hamlin, T. Hontz, D. Nguyen, F. Augustine, S. M. Gruner, N. H. Xuong, D. R. Schuette, M. W. Tate, and L. J. Koerner, “First results from the 128x128 pixel mixed-mode Si x-ray detector chip,” Proc. SPIE6706, 67060U (2007).
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J. Microsc.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schröder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard x-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc.241, 9–12 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

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P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the shapes of gold nanocrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 195505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

J. Nagy and Z. Strakos, “Enforcing nonnegativity in image reconstruction algorithms,” in Proc. SPIE4121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. A. Snigirev, I. I. Snigreva, V. G. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. A. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66, 5486–5492 (1995).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109, 338–343 (2009).
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Other

Factorising the exit surface wave into the product of the incident beam multiplied by the sample transmission function requires assuming the sample is sufficiently thin for the projection approximation to hold [14, 34, 35].

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simultaneous ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy. A focused X-ray beam is scanned across a sample whilst simultaneously recording the X-ray fluorescence spectra and coherent diffraction pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging below the lens resolution. (Rows: Top, Bottom) Two different areas of a gold spoked resolution target, (Columns Left-Right): the scanning transmission image (a,d), the gold M-edge fluorescence (b, e) and the sample exit surface intensity reconstructed using ptychography (c, f). The spacing of the inner ring of spokes in (c) is 30nm. (a) Inset shows the reconstructed probe intensity (log scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Morphological structure and elemental composition of a freshwater diatom. (a) & (b) the reconstructed amplitude (arb. units) and phase (rad) of the sample exit surface wave respectively, (c) the X-ray absorption contrast and fluorescence maps (inset text describes element and image minimum, maximum). The reconstructed transmission images clearly show features not easily resolved in the fluorescence maps such as the diatom wall thickness and a low density cavity surrounded by a much more dense wall.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CDI-enhanced X-ray fluorescence microscopy. The reconstructed X-ray probe in the sample plane and the overlap between probe positions allow imaging beyond the resolution of the X-ray optics. The reconstructed transmission function amplitude (a) & phase (b), (c–i) the X-ray fluorescence map upsampled to the probe resolution (left column) and after iterative deconvolution (right). (i) a plot of the line profile indicated in (g,h) and the derivative (dashed line) demonstrates the resolution improvement is a factor of two.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Determining the reconstruction plane. By propagating the reconstructed X-ray probe intensity through focus we can quantify the distance of the sample from the focal plane. Line profiles through the focal waist (log scale) (a) and through focal series with optical axis running left to right (b), (c). The reconstructed probe in the sample plane (d).

Equations (1)

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I 1 ( u Δ x 1 ) = v | P ( u Δ x 1 v Δ x 2 ) | 2 I 2 ( v Δ x 2 ) ,

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