Abstract

We study the carrier density dependence of nonlinear terahertz (THz) absorption due to field-induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs using the optical-pump/THz-probe technique. The intervalley scattering in GaAs is strongly dependent on the photo-carrier density. As the carrier density is increased from 1 × 1017 to 4.7 × 1017 cm−3, the nonlinear absorption bleaching increases. However, if the carrier density is increased further above 4.7 × 1017 cm−3, the trend reverses and the bleaching is reduced. The initial increase in absorption bleaching is because, unlike low THz field, high THz field experiences intervalley scattering and nonparabolicity of the conduction band. On the other hand, a simple electron transport model shows that the reduction in intervalley scattering is mainly due to the increase in the electron-hole scattering rate with the increase in the carrier density. This increase in the electron-hole scattering rate limits the maximum kinetic energy attainable by the electrons and thus reduces the observed nonlinear absorption.

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  5. K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. F. A. Hegmann and K. P. Lui, “Optical pump-terahertz probe investigation of carrier relaxation in radiation-damaged silicon-on-sapphire,” Proc. SPIE4643, 31–41 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, “Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(12), 1477–1479 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, “Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations,” VLSI Des.15(4), 681–693 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  34. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15764–15777 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 122103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B81(3), 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(16), 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2497–2499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, “Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations,” VLSI Des.15(4), 681–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Hegmann and K. P. Lui, “Optical pump-terahertz probe investigation of carrier relaxation in radiation-damaged silicon-on-sapphire,” Proc. SPIE4643, 31–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, “Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2533–2535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, “Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(26), 3975–3977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, “Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(12), 1477–1479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. F. Young, P. J. Kelly, N. L. Henry, and M. W. C. Dharma-Wardana, “Carrier density dependence of hot-electron scattering rates in quasi-equilibrium electron-hole plasmas,” Solid State Commun.78(5), 343–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ (3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6962–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

W. Walukiewicz, L. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, M. Lichtensteiger, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs: Determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys.50(2), 899–908 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970

K. Blotekjaer, “Transport equations for electrons in two-valley semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.17(1), 38–47 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anile, A. M.

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, “Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations,” VLSI Des.15(4), 681–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arena, D. A.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asmar, N. G.

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, “Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(26), 3975–3977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayesheshim, A.

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H. C.

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Birnir, B.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blotekjaer, K.

K. Blotekjaer, “Transport equations for electrons in two-valley semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.17(1), 38–47 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

Brar, B.

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, “Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(26), 3975–3977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, G. L.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caughey, D. M.

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Chekalin, S. V.

Cocker, T. L.

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dharma-Wardana, M. W. C.

J. F. Young, P. J. Kelly, N. L. Henry, and M. W. C. Dharma-Wardana, “Carrier density dependence of hot-electron scattering rates in quasi-equilibrium electron-hole plasmas,” Solid State Commun.78(5), 343–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, “Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(12), 1477–1479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, “Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(12), 1477–1479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatos, H. C.

W. Walukiewicz, L. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, M. Lichtensteiger, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs: Determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys.50(2), 899–908 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Golde, D.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, B. I.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, “Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(12), 1477–1479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gwinn, E. G.

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, “Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(26), 3975–3977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, “Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2533–2535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B81(3), 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(16), 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J. Á.

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Hegmann and K. P. Lui, “Optical pump-terahertz probe investigation of carrier relaxation in radiation-damaged silicon-on-sapphire,” Proc. SPIE4643, 31–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henry, N. L.

J. F. Young, P. J. Kelly, N. L. Henry, and M. W. C. Dharma-Wardana, “Carrier density dependence of hot-electron scattering rates in quasi-equilibrium electron-hole plasmas,” Solid State Commun.78(5), 343–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hern, S. D.

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, “Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations,” VLSI Des.15(4), 681–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M. C.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B81(3), 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(16), 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B81(3), 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(16), 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jastrzebski, L.

W. Walukiewicz, L. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, M. Lichtensteiger, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs: Determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys.50(2), 899–908 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jauho, A. P.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, K.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ (3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6962–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, P. J.

J. F. Young, P. J. Kelly, N. L. Henry, and M. W. C. Dharma-Wardana, “Carrier density dependence of hot-electron scattering rates in quasi-equilibrium electron-hole plasmas,” Solid State Commun.78(5), 343–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-Y.

King, B. T.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kira, M.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kono, J.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kreß, M.

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, W.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lagowski, L.

W. Walukiewicz, L. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, M. Lichtensteiger, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs: Determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys.50(2), 899–908 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lichtensteiger, M.

W. Walukiewicz, L. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, M. Lichtensteiger, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs: Determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys.50(2), 899–908 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lindenberg, A. M.

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lui, K. P.

F. A. Hegmann and K. P. Lui, “Optical pump-terahertz probe investigation of carrier relaxation in radiation-damaged silicon-on-sapphire,” Proc. SPIE4643, 31–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, “Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(26), 3975–3977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, “Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2533–2535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, A.

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ (3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6962–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morandotti, R.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, J. B.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B81(3), 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(16), 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noda, T.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordstrom, K. B.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, T.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razzari, L.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, M.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saeta, P. N.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, “Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(12), 1477–1479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schade, U.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwin, M. S.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. R.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. G.

Su, F. H.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomas, R. E.

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, H. F.

Tiedje, T.

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Titova, L. V.

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz pulse induced intervalley scattering in photoexcited GaAs,” Opt. Express17(12), 9620–9629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, T. Y.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turchinovich, D.

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

W. Walukiewicz, L. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, M. Lichtensteiger, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs: Determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys.50(2), 899–908 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, H.

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiczer, M.

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. B.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Yeh, K. L.

K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B81(3), 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(16), 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. C.

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, P. J. Kelly, N. L. Henry, and M. W. C. Dharma-Wardana, “Carrier density dependence of hot-electron scattering rates in quasi-equilibrium electron-hole plasmas,” Solid State Commun.78(5), 343–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, “Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(12), 1477–1479 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, “Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(26), 3975–3977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Á. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

G. Sharma, L. Razzari, F. H. Su, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, H. C. Bandulet, T. Ozaki, J. C. Kieffer, R. Morandotti, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of free carrier nonlinear dynamics in semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. J.2(4), 578–592 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

K. Blotekjaer, “Transport equations for electrons in two-valley semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.17(1), 38–47 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. Walukiewicz, L. Lagowski, L. Jastrzebski, M. Lichtensteiger, and H. C. Gatos, “Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs: Determination of the compensation ratio,” J. Appl. Phys.50(2), 899–908 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, “Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2533–2535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature410(6824), 60–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H. C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n - doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B79(19), 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n - type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B77(23), 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B78(12), 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(16), 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump terahertz probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B81(3), 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(23), 15764–15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ (3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(10), 6962–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(18), 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C. C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, “Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(4), 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(10), 107401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(2), 457–460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier mobilities in silicon empirically related to doping and field,” Proc. IEEE55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. A. Hegmann and K. P. Lui, “Optical pump-terahertz probe investigation of carrier relaxation in radiation-damaged silicon-on-sapphire,” Proc. SPIE4643, 31–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

J. F. Young, P. J. Kelly, N. L. Henry, and M. W. C. Dharma-Wardana, “Carrier density dependence of hot-electron scattering rates in quasi-equilibrium electron-hole plasmas,” Solid State Commun.78(5), 343–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

VLSI Des.

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, “Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations,” VLSI Des.15(4), 681–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Grundmann, The Physics of Semiconductors (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

D. G. Cooke, “Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of bulk and nanoscale semiconductors,” PhD dissertation, (Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 2007).

M. C. Nuss and J. Orenstein, Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998).

M. Lundstrom, Fundamentals of carrier transport (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000).

S. D. Ganichev and W. Prettl, Intense Terahertz Excitation of Semiconductors (Oxford University Press, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal shape of a THz pulse measured using electro-optic sampling, with the inset showing the corresponding Fourier amplitude spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission of the peak of the THz pulse as a function of the pump-probe delay for low and high THz peak field strengths. The full THz pulse transients are shown, including the reference (blue) and pumped transients at a pump-probe delay time of 8 ps for the low (red) and high (black) field strengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The carrier density dependence of the experimental (black squares with error bar) and simulated (red line) THz absorption bleaching for 800 nm photoexcited GaAs. The effect of e-h scattering is incorporated by varying the intravalley scattering time in the simulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electron mobility as a function of carrier density. The black squares represent the mobility of the carriers as a function of the carrier density, calculated from the τΓ values extracted from fits to the experimental data in Fig. 3. The carrier density dependence of the mobility is modeled using the Caughey-Thomas relation (black solid line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters used for simulation

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 0 = η 0 W π ω I 2 g 2 ( t )dt
Absorption bleaching= T high T low 1, where T= | E pump (t) | 2 dt | E ref (t) | 2 dt
E trans (t)= 1 Y 0 + Y s (2 Y 0 E inc (t)Jd)
d ν Γ dt = e E trans m Γ * ν Γ τ Γ
m Γ * ( ε Γ )= m Γ0 * (1+ α Γ ε Γ )
μ= μ max μ min 1+ ( N e / N e (ref) ) α + μ min

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