Abstract

We find that the random fiber laser (RFL) without point-reflectors is a temperature-insensitive distributed lasing system for the first time. Inspired by such thermal stability, we propose the novel concept of utilizing the RFL to achieve long-distance fiber-optic remote sensing, in which the RFL offers high-fidelity and long-distance transmission for the sensing signal. Two 100km fiber Bragg grating (FBG) point-sensing schemes based on RFLs are experimentally demonstrated using the first-order and the second-order random lasing, respectively, to verify the concept. Each sensing scheme can achieve >20dB optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) over 100km distance. It is found that the second-order random lasing scheme has much better OSNR than that of the first-order random lasing scheme due to enhanced lasing efficiency, by incorporating a 1455nm FBG into the lasing cavity.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 204–205 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Dual-wavelength, ultralong Raman laser with Rayleigh-scattering feedback,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1100–1102 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength raman fiber lasers using Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirrors combined with random cavities,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(10), 1482–1488 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. R. Sarmani, M. H. Abu Bakar, A. A. A. Bakar, F. R. Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Spectral variations of the output spectrum in a random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(15), 14152–14159 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. J. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. J. Rao, “Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Opt. Lasers Eng.31(4), 297–324 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. J. Rao, “OFS research over the last 10 years at CQU & UESTC,” Photon. Sens.2(2), 97–117 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Rao, “OFS research over the last 10 years at CQU & UESTC,” Photon. Sens.2(2), 97–117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Dual-wavelength, ultralong Raman laser with Rayleigh-scattering feedback,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1100–1102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. J. Rao, “Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Opt. Lasers Eng.31(4), 297–324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. J. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abu Bakar, M. H.

Adikan, F. R.

Alcon-Camas, M.

Ania-Castanon, J. D.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Dual-wavelength, ultralong Raman laser with Rayleigh-scattering feedback,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1100–1102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Dual-wavelength, ultralong Raman laser with Rayleigh-scattering feedback,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1100–1102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakar, A. A. A.

Churkin, D. V.

El-Taher, A. E.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Dual-wavelength, ultralong Raman laser with Rayleigh-scattering feedback,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1100–1102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Vallejo, M.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotiadi, A. A.

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

Harper, P.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Dual-wavelength, ultralong Raman laser with Rayleigh-scattering feedback,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1100–1102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, V.

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

Mahdi, M. A.

Pinto, A. M. R.

Podivilov, E. V.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, “OFS research over the last 10 years at CQU & UESTC,” Photon. Sens.2(2), 97–117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, “Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Opt. Lasers Eng.31(4), 297–324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Sarmani, A. R.

Turitsyn, S. K.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, M. Alcon-Camas, S. A. Babin, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Dual-wavelength, ultralong Raman laser with Rayleigh-scattering feedback,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1100–1102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vatnik, I. D.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Y. J. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: An incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

Y. J. Rao, “Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Opt. Lasers Eng.31(4), 297–324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Sens.

Y. J. Rao, “OFS research over the last 10 years at CQU & UESTC,” Photon. Sens.2(2), 97–117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel)

M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The setup of the RFL with open-cavity; (b) the output power as a function of the input pump power (inset: the output spectral shape corresponded to 2.3W pump power input).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temperature response of the lasing wavelength; (b) the output spectra at −40°C and + 50°C, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The output spectral shape corresponded to 1.6W pump power input in room temperature; (b) temperature response of the central lasing wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The setup of the RFL with half-open cavity

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Far-end spectra of the RFL (1455nm FBG plus 100km SMF) with different pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Near-end spectrum; (b) temperature response of the central wavelength. (Inset: the near-end spectrum when a 1563nm FBG is attached after the 1560nm FBG)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The change of the near-end spectra when the 1455nm FBG is heated: (a) the 1455nm spectrum; (b) the C-band spectrum.

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