Abstract

A generalized method for estimating transmission penalties from spectrally-shaped crosstalk in cascaded multi-port WSS networks is derived, including effects of ASE, signal filtering, and crosstalk filtering. The weighted crosstalk value is computed by multiplying the shaped interfering signal by the power spectral density of the primary signal. This value is used to predict OSNR penalties in networks with cascaded WSSs of arbitrary port count. Theoretical treatment is supported by extensive numerical simulations and experiments for a variety of network configurations. Examples are presented for 43 Gb/s DPSK and 120 Gb/s DP-QPSK in cascaded ROADM networks with three distinct WSS types.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance limitations of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(5), 657–660 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Tibuleac and M. Filer, “Transmission impairments in DWDM networks with reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 557–598 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Zami, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, M. Lefrançois, and H. H. Mardoyan, “Comparative study of crosstalk created in 50 GHz-spaced wavelength selective switch for various modulation formats at 43 Gbit/s,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Cannes, France, 2006), paper We3.P.81.
  4. T. Zami, B. Lavigne, and E. Balmefrezol, “Crosstalk analysis applied to wavelength selective switches,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Anaheim, Calif., 2006), paper OFP4.
  5. T. Zami, B. Lavigne, M. Lefrançois, J.-M. Rainsant, and L. Piriou, “Why are dense WDM transparent networks more tolerant than expected to in-band crosstalk?” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (San Diego, Calif., 2009), paper OThC6.
  6. B. Collings, F. Heismann, and C. Reimer, “Dependence of the transmission impairment on the WSS port isolation spectral profile in 50GHz ROADM networks with 43Gb/s NRZ-ADPSK signals,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (San Diego, Calif., 2009), paper OThJ3.
  7. M. Filer and S. Tibuleac, “Estimating system penalties of spectrally-shaped crosstalk on wide-bandwidth DWDM signals,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting (Denver, Colorado, 2010), paper ThQ3.
  8. M. Filer and S. Tibuleac, “Generalized weighted crosstalk for DWDM systems with cascaded wavelength-selective switches,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Los Angeles, Calif., 2012), paper NTu1F6.
  9. Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Yamamoto, T. Yoshimatsu, H. Takara, T. Komukai, Y. Hashizume, H. Kubota, H. Masuda, M. Jinno, and A. Takada, “Influence of intrachannel crosstalk with frequency dependence on signal degradation in optical switch network,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5716–5722 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Yamamoto, T. Yoshimatsu, H. Takara, T. Komukai, Y. Hashizume, H. Kubota, H. Masuda, M. Jinno, and A. Takada, “Suppression of impairment due to intra-channel crosstalk using wavelength selective filter with broadband channel isolation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optic Society Annual Meeting (Newport Beach, Calif., 2008), paper TuH3.
  12. F. Testa, S. Merli, and P. Pagnan, “Fabry-Perot filter bandwidth effects on end to end transmission performance in a multiwavelength transport network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1027–1030 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Heismann and P. Mamyshev, “43-Gb/s NRZ-PDPSK WDM transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing in systems with cascaded wavelength-selective switches,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (San Diego, CA, 2009), paper OThC1.
  15. S. Gringeri, R. Egorov, B. Basch, G. Wellbrock, B. Zhang, C. Malouin, S. Liu, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, T. Schmidt, C. Pulikkaseril, M. Roelens, L. Fabiny, and S. Frisken, “Real-time 127-Gb/s coherent PM-QPSK transmission over 1000km NDSF with >10 cascaded 50GHz ROADMs,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Torino, Italy, 2010), paper P4.09.
  16. H. Bissessur and C. Bastide, “Experimental assessment of frequency-dependent crosstalk penalty with different 43 Gb/s modulation formats,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Berlin, Germany, 2007), paper P083.
  17. X. Fan, D. Labrake, and J. Brennan, “Chirped fiber grating characterization with phase ripples,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Atlanta, Georgia, 2003), paper FC2.
  18. B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1150–1157 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM Performance and Multiple-Path Interference Tolerance of a Real-Time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK Transceiver with Soft Decision FEC,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Los Angeles, Calif., 2012), paper NTh1I5.
  21. P. Winzer, A. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J.-Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), paper Tu.5.B.7.

2011 (1)

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1150–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tibuleac and M. Filer, “Transmission impairments in DWDM networks with reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 557–598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance limitations of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(5), 657–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Testa, S. Merli, and P. Pagnan, “Fabry-Perot filter bandwidth effects on end to end transmission performance in a multiwavelength transport network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1027–1030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.-K.

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Detwiler, T.

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elrefaie, A. F.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance limitations of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(5), 657–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance limitations of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(5), 657–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Filer, M.

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Tibuleac and M. Filer, “Transmission impairments in DWDM networks with reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 557–598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, E. L.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance limitations of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(5), 657–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, Y.

Hayashi, Y.

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

Komukai, T.

Kubota, H.

Liu, F.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, H.

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Merli, S.

F. Testa, S. Merli, and P. Pagnan, “Fabry-Perot filter bandwidth effects on end to end transmission performance in a multiwavelength transport network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1027–1030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pagnan, P.

F. Testa, S. Merli, and P. Pagnan, “Fabry-Perot filter bandwidth effects on end to end transmission performance in a multiwavelength transport network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1027–1030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, C.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stark, A.

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T.

T. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1150–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, M.

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tada, Y.

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

Takara, H.

Testa, F.

F. Testa, S. Merli, and P. Pagnan, “Fabry-Perot filter bandwidth effects on end to end transmission performance in a multiwavelength transport network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1027–1030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tibuleac, S.

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Tibuleac and M. Filer, “Transmission impairments in DWDM networks with reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 557–598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagener, J. L.

T. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1150–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yoshimatsu, T.

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron. Lett.42(23), 1363–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1150–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Stark, M. Filer, T. Detwiler, S. Tibuleac, G.-K. Chang, and S. E. Ralph, “In-band crosstalk transmission penalties on 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(11), 745–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance limitations of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(5), 657–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Testa, S. Merli, and P. Pagnan, “Fabry-Perot filter bandwidth effects on end to end transmission performance in a multiwavelength transport network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1027–1030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, and Y. Hayashi, “Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1509–1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (13)

S. Yamamoto, T. Yoshimatsu, H. Takara, T. Komukai, Y. Hashizume, H. Kubota, H. Masuda, M. Jinno, and A. Takada, “Suppression of impairment due to intra-channel crosstalk using wavelength selective filter with broadband channel isolation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optic Society Annual Meeting (Newport Beach, Calif., 2008), paper TuH3.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM Performance and Multiple-Path Interference Tolerance of a Real-Time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK Transceiver with Soft Decision FEC,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Los Angeles, Calif., 2012), paper NTh1I5.

P. Winzer, A. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J.-Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), paper Tu.5.B.7.

F. Heismann and P. Mamyshev, “43-Gb/s NRZ-PDPSK WDM transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing in systems with cascaded wavelength-selective switches,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (San Diego, CA, 2009), paper OThC1.

S. Gringeri, R. Egorov, B. Basch, G. Wellbrock, B. Zhang, C. Malouin, S. Liu, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, T. Schmidt, C. Pulikkaseril, M. Roelens, L. Fabiny, and S. Frisken, “Real-time 127-Gb/s coherent PM-QPSK transmission over 1000km NDSF with >10 cascaded 50GHz ROADMs,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Torino, Italy, 2010), paper P4.09.

H. Bissessur and C. Bastide, “Experimental assessment of frequency-dependent crosstalk penalty with different 43 Gb/s modulation formats,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Berlin, Germany, 2007), paper P083.

X. Fan, D. Labrake, and J. Brennan, “Chirped fiber grating characterization with phase ripples,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Atlanta, Georgia, 2003), paper FC2.

T. Zami, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, M. Lefrançois, and H. H. Mardoyan, “Comparative study of crosstalk created in 50 GHz-spaced wavelength selective switch for various modulation formats at 43 Gbit/s,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Cannes, France, 2006), paper We3.P.81.

T. Zami, B. Lavigne, and E. Balmefrezol, “Crosstalk analysis applied to wavelength selective switches,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Anaheim, Calif., 2006), paper OFP4.

T. Zami, B. Lavigne, M. Lefrançois, J.-M. Rainsant, and L. Piriou, “Why are dense WDM transparent networks more tolerant than expected to in-band crosstalk?” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (San Diego, Calif., 2009), paper OThC6.

B. Collings, F. Heismann, and C. Reimer, “Dependence of the transmission impairment on the WSS port isolation spectral profile in 50GHz ROADM networks with 43Gb/s NRZ-ADPSK signals,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (San Diego, Calif., 2009), paper OThJ3.

M. Filer and S. Tibuleac, “Estimating system penalties of spectrally-shaped crosstalk on wide-bandwidth DWDM signals,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting (Denver, Colorado, 2010), paper ThQ3.

M. Filer and S. Tibuleac, “Generalized weighted crosstalk for DWDM systems with cascaded wavelength-selective switches,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Los Angeles, Calif., 2012), paper NTu1F6.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of primary signal S(f), and interfering signal X(f) shaped by imperfect WSS isolation (dotted gray line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Generalized cascade of M Nx1 WSSs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation setup for transmission of 40G NRZ-DPSK with arbitrary-shaped crosstalk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

H(f) filter shapes (a-e), penalties (1E-5) for (i) unweighted, and (ii) weighted crosstalk.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Three measured WSS stop-bands, and (b) corresponding measured OSNR penalties (solid circles) overlaid on simulation result (hollow triangles).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured signal spectra with primary signal (black) and a subset of shaped interfering signals (colored), and measured OSNR penalties (1E-5) plotted against (b) unweighted and (c) weighted crosstalk.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cascaded 9x1 WSS system; inset shows corresponding transfer function H(f) for the 9 input ports of WSS 1. A single 9x1 WSS used for results of sec. 4.2 (path of dotted gray line); 4 cascaded WSSs used for results of sec 4.3 (path of solid black line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) BER versus OSNR for interferers at + 9 dB relative to primary signal power, and (b) weighted (hollow) and unweighted (solid) crosstalk in single 9x1 WSS system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Weighted (hollow) and unweighted (solid) crosstalk for (a) 43G DPSK and (b) 120G DP-QPSK in system with 4 cascaded 9x1 WSSs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) WSS transmittance, and (b) weighted crosstalk evolution versus number of WSSs for 43G DPSK and 120G DP-QPSK.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Estimated crosstalk-induced OSNR penalty for 120G DP-QPSK versus number of WSSs from analysis.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε X = f 0 f 0 X(f)df f 0 f 0 S(f)df ,
ε X w = f 0 f 0 X(f)W(f)df f 0 f 0 S(f)df
k= f 0 f 0 S(f)df f 0 f 0 S 2 (f)df
S out (f)= S in (f) m=1 M H m,N (f) + m=1 M [ n=1 N1 S m,n (f) H m,n (f) H m,N (f) ( k=m M H k,N (f) ) ]
ε X w = f 0 f 0 m=1 M [ n=1 N1 S m,n (f) H m,n (f) H m,N (f) ( k=m M H k,N (f) ) ] W(f)df f 0 f 0 S in (f) m=1 M H m,N (f)df

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