Abstract

The sustainability of Future Internet critically depends on networking paradigms able to provide optimum and balanced performance over an extended set of efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) metrics. In this work we benchmark the most established networking modes through appropriate performance metrics for three network topologies. The results demonstrate that the static reservation of WDM channels, as used in IP/WDM schemes, is severely limiting scalability, since it cannot efficiently adapt to the dynamic traffic fluctuations that are frequently observed in today’s networks. Optical Burst Switching (OBS) schemes do provide dynamic resource reservation but their performance is compromised due to high burst loss. It is shown that the CANON (Clustered Architecture for Nodes in an Optical Network) architecture exploiting statistical multiplexing over a large scale core optical network and efficient grooming at appropriate granularity levels could be a viable alternative to existing static as well as dynamic wavelength reservation schemes. Through extensive simulation results we quantify performance gains and we show that CANON demonstrates the highest efficiency achieving both targets for statistical multiplexing gains and QoS guarantees.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

2010 (1)

A. Drakos, T. G. Orphanoudakis, C. T. Politi, A. Stavdas, and A. Lord, “Evaluation of optical core networks based on the CANON architecture,” Photonic Netw. Commun.20(1), 75–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

N. Barakat and T. E. Darcie, “Control-plane congestion in Optical-Burst-Switched Networks,” J. Opt. Netw.1(3), B98–B110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zalesky, “To burst or circuit switch?” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.17(1), 305–318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Médard, “Design and analysis of optically flow switched networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.1(3), B81–B97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

C. Qiao, W. Wei, and X. Liu, “Extending generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) for polymorphous, agile, and transparent optical networks (PATON),” IEEE Commun. Mag.44(12), 104–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Chu and L. B. Li, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.13(3), 704–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stavdas, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Linardakis, and J. Angelopoulos, “A novel scheme for performing statistical multiplexing in the optical layer,” J. Opt. Netw.4(5), 237–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, and S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag.38(2), 84–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS) - A new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Netw.8, 69–84 (1999).

J. S. Turner, “Terabit burst switching,” J. High Speed Netw.8, 3–16 (1999).

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun.40(7), 1171–1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

G. Hill, “A wavelength routing approach to optical communication networks,” Br. Telecommun. Technol. J.6, 24–31 (1988).

Angelopoulos, J.

Angelopoulos, J. D.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multi-domain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag.46(6), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, “An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1138–1146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barakat, N.

N. Barakat and T. E. Darcie, “Control-plane congestion in Optical-Burst-Switched Networks,” J. Opt. Netw.1(3), B98–B110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Berde, B.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

Cai, J.-X.

Cai, Y.

Callegati, F.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerroni, W.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

Chiaroni, D.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun.40(7), 1171–1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.

C. Chu and L. B. Li, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.13(3), 704–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colle, D.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T. E.

N. Barakat and T. E. Darcie, “Control-plane congestion in Optical-Burst-Switched Networks,” J. Opt. Netw.1(3), B98–B110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C. R.

Dembeck, L.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Derkacz, J.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Develder, C.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dittmann, L.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, and S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag.38(2), 84–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drakos, A.

A. Drakos, T. G. Orphanoudakis, C. T. Politi, A. Stavdas, and A. Lord, “Evaluation of optical core networks based on the CANON architecture,” Photonic Netw. Commun.20(1), 75–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multi-domain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag.46(6), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Stavdas, C. T. Politi, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Drakos, “Optical packet routers: how they can efficiently and cost-effectively scale to petabits per second,” J. Opt. Netw.7(10), 876–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Düser, M.

Eilenberger, G.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foursa, D. G.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun.40(7), 1171–1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G.

G. Hill, “A wavelength routing approach to optical communication networks,” Br. Telecommun. Technol. J.6, 24–31 (1988).

Inkret, R.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, M.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanonakis, K.

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun.40(7), 1171–1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koerber, W.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koukouvakis, G.

Le Sauze, N.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leligou, H. C.

Leligou, N.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. B.

C. Chu and L. B. Li, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.13(3), 704–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lievens, I.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Linardakis, C.

Liu, L.

Z. Zhang, L. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Slotted Optical Burst Switching (SOBS) networks,” Comput. Commun.30(18), 3471–3479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

C. Qiao, W. Wei, and X. Liu, “Extending generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) for polymorphous, agile, and transparent optical networks (PATON),” IEEE Commun. Mag.44(12), 104–114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lord, A.

A. Drakos, T. G. Orphanoudakis, C. T. Politi, A. Stavdas, and A. Lord, “Evaluation of optical core networks based on the CANON architecture,” Photonic Netw. Commun.20(1), 75–82 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multi-domain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag.46(6), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lucero, A. J.

Maesschalck, S. D.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahony, M.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, “The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1026–1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matrakidis, C.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, J. D. Angelopoulos, and A. Lord, “Dynamic CANON: A scalable multi-domain core network,” IEEE Commun. Mag.46(6), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, “An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1138–1146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mauz, C.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Médard, M.

Mikac, B.

S. D. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Netw. Commun.5(3), 203–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohs, G.

Mortensen, B.

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C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS) - A new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Netw.8, 69–84 (1999).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength reservation and data transmission (a) OFCS (b) OBS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Clustered Architecture for Nodes in an Optical Network (CANON).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CANON layering and transmission granularities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pan-European network in a mesh and clustered (CANON) configuration (a), Ideal equidistant 16 node network following a 4x4 Torus (mesh) and clustered (CANON) topology (b), Telecom Italia mesh and clustered network (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total capacity C (number of Tx/Rx) for the 16-node networks.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

S-OBS performance in terms of SLP (a), Average end-to-end delay (b) and resource utilization expressed as R/C (c) and S/R (d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

S-OBS and OFCS total average message load per node.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OFCS performance in terms of: SLP (a), Average end-to-end delay (b) and resource utilization expressed as R/C (c) and S/R (d).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CANON performance in terms of SLP (a) Average end-to-end delay (b) and resource utilization expressed as R/C (c) and S/R (d).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

S-OBS, OFCS and CANON performance for the Torus network and OFCS and CANON performance for the TI network in terms of SLP (a, d) average end-to-end delay (b, e) and resource utilization expressed as U = T/C (c, f).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

CANON inter cluster traffic profiles: 3 source-destination cluster pairs at 80% load.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Traffic performance (SLP, Delay) and utilization factors for OCS (independent of traffic load)

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Table 2 Throughput/ Total Network Capacity (T/C) for S-OBS

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Table 3 Throughput/ Total Network Capacity (T/C) for OFCS

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Table 4 Throughput/ Total Network Capacity (T/C) for CANON

Tables Icon

Table 5 Total number of components (CAPEX)

Metrics