Abstract

We present an alternative approach for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). In contrast to other commonly used AO-SLO instruments, the imaging optics consist of lenses. Images of the fovea region of 5 healthy volunteers are recorded. The system is capable to resolve human foveal cones in 3 out of 5 healthy volunteers. Additionally, we investigated the capability of the system to support larger scanning angles (up to 5°) on the retina. Finally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the instrument images of rod photoreceptors are presented.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (8)

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2189–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, “Imaging single cells in the living retina,” Vision Res.51(13), 1379–1396 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), A265–A277 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, “Applications of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(4), 260–268 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vivo investigation of human cone photoreceptors with SLO/OCT in combination with 3D motion correction on a cellular level,” Opt. Express18(13), 13935–13944 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), A265–A277 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (8)

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Vilupuru, N. V. Rangaswamy, L. J. Frishman, E. L. Smith, R. S. Harwerth, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1417–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Chen, S. M. Jones, D. A. Silva, and S. S. Olivier, “High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1305–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1327–1336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol.2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Chen, S. M. Jones, D. A. Silva, and S. S. Olivier, “High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1305–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE5688, 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, U275 (2003).

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res.36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.32(3), 616–624 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol.292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Arakawa, N.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Ayyagari, R.

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bigelow, C. E.

Bloom, B.

Branham, K. E. H.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

Castellarin, A.

S. Joeres, S. M. Jones, D. C. Chen, D. Silva, S. Olivier, A. Fawzi, A. Castellarin, and S. R. Sadda, “Retinal imaging with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in unexplained central ring scotoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 543–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D. C.

Chen, Y. M.

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coletta, N. J.

Cooper, R. F.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol.292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, C.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Dubis, A. M.

Dubra, A.

Duncan, J. L.

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2189–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Evans, J. W.

Fawzi, A.

S. Joeres, S. M. Jones, D. C. Chen, D. Silva, S. Olivier, A. Fawzi, A. Castellarin, and S. R. Sadda, “Retinal imaging with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in unexplained central ring scotoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 543–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, D.

Ferguson, R. D.

Frishman, L. J.

Gandhi, J.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncharov, A. V.

Götzinger, E.

Gudiseva, V. H.

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hangai, M.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harwerth, R. S.

Hebert, T. J.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol.292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Iftimia, N. V.

Iglesias, I.

Inoue, T.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joeres, S.

S. Joeres, S. M. Jones, D. C. Chen, D. Silva, S. Olivier, A. Fawzi, A. Castellarin, and S. R. Sadda, “Retinal imaging with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in unexplained central ring scotoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 543–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, U275 (2003).

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol.292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsson, P.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koizumi, H.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, K. Y.

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J. Z.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res.36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lujan, B.

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merino, D.

Miller, D. T.

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, U275 (2003).

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res.36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res.36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Mukai, H.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, C.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neal, D.

Norris, J. L.

Nowakowski, M.

Ojima, Y.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

S. Joeres, S. M. Jones, D. C. Chen, D. Silva, S. Olivier, A. Fawzi, A. Castellarin, and S. R. Sadda, “Retinal imaging with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in unexplained central ring scotoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 543–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S. S.

Ooto, S.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshima, S.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Othman, M.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owner-Petersen, M.

Patel, A. H.

Petrig, B. L.

Pircher, M.

Popovic, Z.

Qi, X. F.

Qu, J.

R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, U275 (2003).

Queener, H.

Rangaswamy, N. V.

Ratnam, K.

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J. T.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2189–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, “Applications of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(4), 260–268 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Vilupuru, N. V. Rangaswamy, L. J. Frishman, E. L. Smith, R. S. Harwerth, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1417–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE5688, 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

S. Joeres, S. M. Jones, D. C. Chen, D. Silva, S. Olivier, A. Fawzi, A. Castellarin, and S. R. Sadda, “Retinal imaging with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in unexplained central ring scotoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 543–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, A.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Sheehan, M.

Silva, D.

S. Joeres, S. M. Jones, D. C. Chen, D. Silva, S. Olivier, A. Fawzi, A. Castellarin, and S. R. Sadda, “Retinal imaging with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in unexplained central ring scotoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 543–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, D. A.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol.292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. L.

Stevenson, S. B.

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE5688, 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sulai, Y.

Sundquist, S. M.

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swaroop, A.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayama, K.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thaung, J.

Thorn, K.

R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, U275 (2003).

Tiruveedhula, P.

D. Merino, J. L. Duncan, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(8), 2189–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsujikawa, A.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumbar, R.

Ustun, T. E.

Vilupuru, A. S.

Vohnsen, B.

Wang, Q.

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Yamada, Y.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashiro, K.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, N.

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R.

M. Pircher and R. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol.2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z. Y.

Zou, W. Y.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Joeres, S. M. Jones, D. C. Chen, D. Silva, S. Olivier, A. Fawzi, A. Castellarin, and S. R. Sadda, “Retinal imaging with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in unexplained central ring scotoma,” Arch. Ophthalmol.126(4), 543–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Pircher and R. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol.2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.)25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (7)

R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.44, U275 (2003).

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.32(3), 616–624 (1991).
[PubMed]

K. Y. Li, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Intersubject variability of foveal cone photoreceptor density in relation to eye length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(12), 6858–6867 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Chen, K. Ratnam, S. M. Sundquist, B. Lujan, R. Ayyagari, V. H. Gudiseva, A. Roorda, and J. L. Duncan, “Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(6), 3281–3292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, N. Arakawa, A. Tsujikawa, H. Koizumi, S. Oshima, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution photoreceptor imaging in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(8), 5541–5550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, “High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.48(7), 3283–3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol.292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (8)

N. J. Coletta and D. R. Williams, “Psychophysical estimate of extrafoveal cone spacing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4(8), 1503–1513 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Chen, S. M. Jones, D. A. Silva, and S. S. Olivier, “High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1305–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Chen, S. M. Jones, D. A. Silva, and S. S. Olivier, “High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1305–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
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C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1327–1336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Vilupuru, N. V. Rangaswamy, L. J. Frishman, E. L. Smith, R. S. Harwerth, and A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for in vivo imaging of lamina cribrosa,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(5), 1417–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), A265–A277 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Y. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Y. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), A265–A277 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (3)

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Takayama, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology118(5), 873–881 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooto, M. Hangai, A. Sakamoto, A. Tsujikawa, K. Yamashiro, Y. Ojima, Y. Yamada, H. Mukai, S. Oshima, T. Inoue, and N. Yoshimura, “High-resolution imaging of resolved central serous chorioretinopathy using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Ophthalmology117(9), 1800–1809, 1809.e2 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. Roorda, “Applications of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci.87(4), 260–268 (2010).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, “Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Proc. SPIE5688, 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

D. R. Williams, “Imaging single cells in the living retina,” Vision Res.51(13), 1379–1396 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Z. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res.36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spot diagrams obtained at the image plane of an afocal telescope. (a) Spherical mirrors in planar configuration, (b) spherical mirrors in folded configuration, (c) lens-based telescope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the experimental setup. LS light source, FPC fiber polarization controller, Col collimator, Pol polarizer, PBS polarizing beam splitter, L1-L4 lenses with 200mm focal length, L5 lens (f = 75mm), L6 (f = 250mm), L7 (f = 300mm), L8 (f = 180mm), RS resonant scanner, GS galvanometer scanner, DM deformable mirror, Pel Pellicle, QWP quarter wave plate, SHS Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor, APD avalanche photodiode, FT fixation target, I variable aperture stop.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First frame of a video (Media 1) showing AO-SLO images of the fovea recorded from volunteer 1 (scanning angle ~1°x1°, most likely central point, the foveola, is indicated by an arrow).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AO-SLO images recorded from volunteer 1. (a) Average of all frames of Fig. 3 showing the fovea (rectangles mark the region of interest evaluated in Fig. 5), (b) Averaged frame on a logarithmic scale .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

First frames of movies showing FFT’s of 50x50µm patches of the retinal cone mosaic. (a) Computed areas indicated by rectangles in Fig. 4(a) (Media 2). (b) Computed areas of a diagonal starting from the upper left corner to the lower right corner of Fig. 4(a) (Media 3).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AO-SLO images on a logarithmic scale of the fovea recorded from 4 different volunteers. (Upper left: volunteer 2, upper right: volunteer 3, lower left: volunteer 4, lower right: volunteer 5)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AO-SLO images of the fovea recorded with 2 degree scanning angle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

AO-SLO images of the fovea recorded with 3 degree scanning angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AO-SLO images of the fovea recorded with 4 degree scanning angle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

AO-SLO images of the fovea recorded with 5 degree scanning angle

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the image quality of a 50µmx50µm region of interest retrieved from data sets with different field of views at ~0.5° eccentricity from the fovea. (a) ROI from 1°x1° FOV, (b) ROI from 2°x2° FOV, (c) ROI from 3°x3° FOV, (d) ROI from 4°x4° FOV, (e) ROI from 5°x5° FOV.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of the image quality between 5 degree scanning angle and 1 degree scanning angle. Top row: 5°x5° FOV, bottom row: 1°x1° FOV. (The number indicates the region of interest shown in Fig. 10).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Images of rod photoreceptors recorded from volunteer 3 with the new instrument at an eccentricity of ~7° temporal to the fovea. Left: linear scale, right: logarithmic scale. (Scale bar: 50µm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of Measured Volunteers. LR Distance Lens Surface to the Retina (Eye Length Minus Anterior Segment Depth), PD Pupil Diameter During Measurement (Measured with SHWS)

Metrics