Abstract

We propose an unconventional out-coupling structure consisting of two-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric patterns. Numerical simulations show that low orders of guided modes are extracted efficiently by the metal-dielectric pattern with a pitch size of ~(λ/n) and pattern depth of <100 nm. Vertical GaN light-emitting diodes with optimized metal-ITO patterns exhibited extraction efficiencies enhanced by factors of 6.6 and 2.6 for perfect conductor and silver metals, respectively, as compared to a non-patterned structure. The plasmonic absorption loss from the corrugated silver mirror accounts for the relatively smaller enhancement in extraction efficiency with the silver-ITO pattern. Furthermore, a double-sided out-coupling structure consisting of an upper GaN-air pattern and a bottom perfect conductor-ITO pattern exhibited a 40% enhancement in extraction efficiency as compared to the structure with single GaN-air pattern. We believe that deep understandings of the interaction between light and metal-dielectric patterns will lead to improved device performances in various optoelectronic applications including high-efficiency light-emitting diodes.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2639–2649 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).
  19. S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).

2009 (6)

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2639–2649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, F.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bae, D. K.

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-L.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-M.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M.-W.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, H. M.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

Choi, W.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ee, H.-S.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gartia, M. R.

Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.-S.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. P.

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2639–2649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B.-C.

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A. Y.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Kim, S.-K.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, H.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laubsch, A.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).

Lee, B.

Lee, H.-J.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-W.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, S.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-C.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misra, M. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y.-T.

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-G.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peter, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sabathil, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. D.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S. A.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, L.-W.

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uang, K.-M.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-J.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-H.

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-Y.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. L.

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2639–2649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G. J.

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, Y. Chen, M. R. Gartia, J. Jiang, and G. L. Liu, “Surface plasmon enhanced broadband spectrophotometry on black silver substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, and G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light‐emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(8), 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” Electron. Lett. 57, 79–87 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2639–2649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of several orders of guided modes that interact with the top periodic GaN pattern. (b) The calculated modal refractive index as a function of thickness of GaN slab. The uppermost plot (black curve) represents the fundamental mode. (c) Extraction efficiencies calculated as a function of etch depth of the top GaN pattern, h, at the lattice constant, a, of 240 nm (pink) and 1200 nm (red).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of a GaN vertical LED with a bottom metal-ITO patterned mirror. (b) Extraction efficiencies as a function of distance of the LEDs with no pattern (black), square-lattice periodic pattern on the top of GaN slab (red), and square-lattice periodic pattern on the PC bottom mirror (green), which were calculated as a function of light propagation distance, d. For all patterns, the pitch size and pattern depth were 240 nm and 60 nm, respectively. (c) Extraction efficiencies of PC-ITO patterned (green) and silver-ITO patterned (blue) GaN LEDs with varying pitch size. The pattern depth was 60 nm. (d) Extraction efficiencies of silver-ITO patterned GaN LEDs with a pitch size of 400 nm (blue) and 1200 nm (purple) calculated as a function of pattern depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflectivity of silver-ITO patterned structures with the pattern depths of 30 nm (blue) and 60 nm (purple) which was calculated as a function of the pitch size. The structure with a pitch size of 0 nm indicates a planar silver mirror. (b) Electric field intensity (upper) and absorption intensity (bottom) in the silver-ITO structure with the pitch sizes of 200 nm and 1200 nm when a normal plane wave is incident. The pattern depth was 60 nm for both structures. (c) Reflectance of a non-patterned silver mirror (black) and silver-ITO patterned structure with the pitch sizes of 200 nm (red), 400 nm (blue) and 600 nm (green). For the silver-ITO patterned structure, the depth of pattern was 60 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of a GaN vertical LED with double-sided out-coupling patterns consisting of a top GaN-air and a bottom metal-ITO patterns. (b) Extraction efficiency of double-sided patterns as a function of the pitch size of metal-ITO pattern, where metal is either PC (green) or silver (blue). The origin in this plot implies the structure with single GaN-air pattern. The pitch size of GaN-air pattern was 1200 nm.

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