Abstract

Bright dual-mode green-emitting core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by doping selective set of lanthanide ions. Up-conversion (UC) green-emitting β-NaY0.2Gd0.6F4:Yb0.18,Er0.02 NPs (8.3 nm) were used as core material. Bright down-conversion (DC) green-emitting β-NaGd0.8F4:Ce0.15,Tb0.05 NPs showed ca. 31 times higher photoluminescence (PL) intensity than β-NaGdF4:Tb NPs and they were served as shell material with their excellent PL properties. The UC/DC core/shell NPs showed bright green light under excitations of 980 nm near infrared (NIR) light and 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) light, respectively. The UC/DC core/shell NPs showed ca. 11 times higher UC PL intensity than core UCNPs. Consequently, the core/shell NPs doped with selective set of lanthanide ions showed bright dual-mode green emission under excitations of NIR light and UV light, indicating that they are promising for application to optical imaging.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,” Adv. Funct. Mater.13(7), 511–516 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Bechtel, T. Jüstel, H. Gläser, and D. U. Wiechert, “Phosphors for plasma-display panels: demands and achieved performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.10, 63–67 (2002).
  3. H. S. Jang, H. Y. Kim, Y.-S. Kim, H. M. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “Yellow-emitting γ-Ca2SiO4:Ce3+,Li+ phosphor for solid-sate lighting: luminescent properties, electronic structure, and white light-emitting diode application,” Opt. Express20(3), 2761–2771 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials29(7), 937–943 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. K. Chatterjee, M. K. Gnanasammandhan, and Y. Zhang, “Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Small6(24), 2781–2795 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Haase, S. Heer, K. Kömpe, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Wang and X. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev.104(1), 139–174 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb,Er and NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Schäfer, P. Ptacek, O. Zerzouf, and M. Haase, “Synthesis and optical properties of KYF4/Yb, Er nanocrystals, and their surface modification with undoped KYF4,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(19), 2913–2918 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J.-C. Boyer, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.7(3), 847–852 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. Li, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Dual-mode luminescent colloidal spheres from monodisperse rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(19), 1945–1948 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, Berlin, 1994).
  28. Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. K. A. Abel, J.-C. Boyer, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Hard proof of the NaYF4/NaGdF4 nanocrystal core/shell structure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(41), 14644–14645 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Chatterjee, M. K. Gnanasammandhan, and Y. Zhang, “Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Small6(24), 2781–2795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Dual-mode luminescent colloidal spheres from monodisperse rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(19), 1945–1948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Abel, J.-C. Boyer, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Hard proof of the NaYF4/NaGdF4 nanocrystal core/shell structure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(41), 14644–14645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Schäfer, P. Ptacek, O. Zerzouf, and M. Haase, “Synthesis and optical properties of KYF4/Yb, Er nanocrystals, and their surface modification with undoped KYF4,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(19), 2913–2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang and X. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials29(7), 937–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J.-C. Boyer, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.7(3), 847–852 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb,Er and NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Haase, S. Heer, K. Kömpe, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev.104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,” Adv. Funct. Mater.13(7), 511–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Bechtel, T. Jüstel, H. Gläser, and D. U. Wiechert, “Phosphors for plasma-display panels: demands and achieved performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.10, 63–67 (2002).

Abel, K. A.

K. A. Abel, J.-C. Boyer, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Hard proof of the NaYF4/NaGdF4 nanocrystal core/shell structure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(41), 14644–14645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ågren, H.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aloni, S.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altoe, V.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, K. J.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev.104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batentschuk, M.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H.

H. Bechtel, T. Jüstel, H. Gläser, and D. U. Wiechert, “Phosphors for plasma-display panels: demands and achieved performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.10, 63–67 (2002).

Boyer, J.-C.

K. A. Abel, J.-C. Boyer, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Hard proof of the NaYF4/NaGdF4 nanocrystal core/shell structure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(41), 14644–14645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.7(3), 847–852 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, C. J.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capobianco, J. A.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Boyer, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.7(3), 847–852 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, D. K.

D. K. Chatterjee, M. K. Gnanasammandhan, and Y. Zhang, “Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Small6(24), 2781–2795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials29(7), 937–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. Y.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. S.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, G. M.

G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb,Er and NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, B. E.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, L. A.

J.-C. Boyer, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.7(3), 847–852 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, R.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, C.

C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,” Adv. Funct. Mater.13(7), 511–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frangioni, J. V.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gläser, H.

H. Bechtel, T. Jüstel, H. Gläser, and D. U. Wiechert, “Phosphors for plasma-display panels: demands and achieved performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.10, 63–67 (2002).

Gnanasammandhan, M. K.

D. K. Chatterjee, M. K. Gnanasammandhan, and Y. Zhang, “Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Small6(24), 2781–2795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Güdel, H. U.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haase, S. Heer, K. Kömpe, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, M.

H. Schäfer, P. Ptacek, O. Zerzouf, and M. Haase, “Synthesis and optical properties of KYF4/Yb, Er nanocrystals, and their surface modification with undoped KYF4,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(19), 2913–2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Haase, S. Heer, K. Kömpe, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, G.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heer, S.

M. Haase, S. Heer, K. Kömpe, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, N.-M.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyeon, T.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, W. B.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, H. Y. Kim, Y.-S. Kim, H. M. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “Yellow-emitting γ-Ca2SiO4:Ce3+,Li+ phosphor for solid-sate lighting: luminescent properties, electronic structure, and white light-emitting diode application,” Opt. Express20(3), 2761–2771 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Y. Kim, Y.-S. Kim, H. M. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “Yellow-emitting γ-Ca2SiO4:Ce3+,Li+ phosphor for solid-sate lighting: luminescent properties, electronic structure, and white light-emitting diode application,” Opt. Express20(3), 2761–2771 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Q.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jüstel, T.

C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,” Adv. Funct. Mater.13(7), 511–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Bechtel, T. Jüstel, H. Gläser, and D. U. Wiechert, “Phosphors for plasma-display panels: demands and achieved performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.10, 63–67 (2002).

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.-Y.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-S.

Kömpe, K.

M. Haase, S. Heer, K. Kömpe, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. M.

Lee, J. S.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-G.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

P. Li, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Dual-mode luminescent colloidal spheres from monodisperse rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(19), 1945–1948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. F.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. D.

P. Li, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Dual-mode luminescent colloidal spheres from monodisperse rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(19), 1945–1948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Q.

H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, C. S.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L. Q.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang and X. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. G.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mahalingam, V.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mai, H.-X.

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milliron, D. J.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misra, P.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, C. G.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, I. N.

H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naccache, R.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nasr, K.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, H.-J.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohulchanskyy, T. Y.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osvet, A.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-G.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

P. Li, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Dual-mode luminescent colloidal spheres from monodisperse rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(19), 1945–1948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinna, L.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ptacek, P.

H. Schäfer, P. Ptacek, O. Zerzouf, and M. Haase, “Synthesis and optical properties of KYF4/Yb, Er nanocrystals, and their surface modification with undoped KYF4,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(19), 2913–2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, H. S.

H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, B. S.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ronda, C. R.

C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,” Adv. Funct. Mater.13(7), 511–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rufaihah, A. J.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials29(7), 937–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schäfer, H.

H. Schäfer, P. Ptacek, O. Zerzouf, and M. Haase, “Synthesis and optical properties of KYF4/Yb, Er nanocrystals, and their surface modification with undoped KYF4,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(19), 2913–2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P. J.

C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,” Adv. Funct. Mater.13(7), 511–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Si, R.

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speghini, A.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.-D.

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trupke, T.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tu, D.

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, D. T.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

K. A. Abel, J.-C. Boyer, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Hard proof of the NaYF4/NaGdF4 nanocrystal core/shell structure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(41), 14644–14645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetrone, F.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang and X. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Q.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiechert, D. U.

H. Bechtel, T. Jüstel, H. Gläser, and D. U. Wiechert, “Phosphors for plasma-display panels: demands and achieved performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.10, 63–67 (2002).

Won, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, C.-H.

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Z.-G.

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. S.

G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb,Er and NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

You, L.-P.

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zerzouf, O.

H. Schäfer, P. Ptacek, O. Zerzouf, and M. Haase, “Synthesis and optical properties of KYF4/Yb, Er nanocrystals, and their surface modification with undoped KYF4,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(19), 2913–2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

D. K. Chatterjee, M. K. Gnanasammandhan, and Y. Zhang, “Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Small6(24), 2781–2795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials29(7), 937–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-W.

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H. M.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, R. Kumar, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Ultrasmall monodisperse NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals with enhanced near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence,” ACS Nano4(6), 3163–3168 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb,Er and NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schäfer, P. Ptacek, O. Zerzouf, and M. Haase, “Synthesis and optical properties of KYF4/Yb, Er nanocrystals, and their surface modification with undoped KYF4,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(19), 2913–2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, V. Mahalingam, C. G. Morgan, and J. A. Capobianco, “The active-core/active-shell approach: a strategy to enhance the upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(18), 2924–2929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Feldmann, T. Jüstel, C. R. Ronda, and P. J. Schmidt, “Inorganic luminescent materials: 100 years of research and application,” Adv. Funct. Mater.13(7), 511–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and S. Jiang, “Multicolor core/shell-structured upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(24), 4765–4769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Dual-mode luminescent colloidal spheres from monodisperse rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(19), 1945–1948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, D. Tu, H. Zhu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(30), 3266–3271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Haase, S. Heer, K. Kömpe, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

D. T. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, “Time-resolved FRET biosensor based on amine-functionalized lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(28), 6306–6310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials29(7), 937–943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev.104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

F. Wang and X. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-X. Mai, Y.-W. Zhang, R. Si, Z.-G. Yan, L.-D. Sun, L.-P. You, and C.-H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Abel, J.-C. Boyer, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Hard proof of the NaYF4/NaGdF4 nanocrystal core/shell structure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(41), 14644–14645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

H. Bechtel, T. Jüstel, H. Gläser, and D. U. Wiechert, “Phosphors for plasma-display panels: demands and achieved performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.10, 63–67 (2002).

Nano Lett.

J.-C. Boyer, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.7(3), 847–852 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Res.

L. Cheng, K. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles,” Nano Res.3(10), 722–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

H. Guo, Z. Q. Li, H. S. Qian, Y. Hu, and I. N. Muhammad, “Seed-mediated synthesis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/NaGdF4 nanocrystals with improved upconversion fluorescence and MR relaxivity,” Nanotechnology21(12), 125602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

J. Park, K. J. An, Y. Hwang, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, N.-M. Hwang, and T. Hyeon, “Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(12), 891–895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, F. Liu, K. Nasr, P. Misra, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(1), 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

S. Wu, G. Han, D. J. Milliron, S. Aloni, V. Altoe, D. V. Talapin, B. E. Cohen, and P. J. Schuck, “Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(27), 10917–10921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

D. K. Chatterjee, M. K. Gnanasammandhan, and Y. Zhang, “Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Small6(24), 2781–2795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, Berlin, 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TEM images (Insets show HR-TEM images and inset scale bars indicate 5 nm.), (b) XRD patterns, and (c) PL spectra of (i) β-NaYF4:Yb,Er and (ii) β-NYGF:Yb,Er UCNPs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TEM image of β-NYGF:Yb,Er/β-NaGdF4 core/shell UCNPs (Inset shows HR-TEM image.), (b) PL spectra, and (c) digital camera image showing luminescence of (i) β-NYGF:Yb,Er core and (ii) β-NYGF:Yb,Er/β-NaGdF4 core/shell. Inset of (b) shows magnified PL spectra in low intensity range.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration showing dual-mode up-conversion and down-conversion luminescence from core/shell structure doped with selective set of lanthanide ions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) TEM image (Inset shows HR-TEM image and inset scale bar indicates 5 nm.), (b) XRD pattern, and (c) PL spectrum of β-NaGdF4:Tb.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) TEM and HR-TEM images (inset scale bar = 5 nm) and (b) XRD pattern of β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb, (c) PL spectra of β-NaGdF4:Tb and β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb. Inset shows photographs of β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb solution under room light (left) and 254 nm UV light (right) [i: 5D37F6, ii: 5D37F5, iii: 5D37F4, iv: 5D47F6, v: 5D47F5, vi: 5D47F4, vii: 5D47F3, viii: 5D47F2, ix: 5D47F1, and x: 5D47F0].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PL spectra of the β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb under excitations of UV light (black line: λex = 254 nm and red line: λex = 273 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) TEM and HR-TEM images (inset scale bar = 5 nm) of β-NYGF:Yb,Er/β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb UC/DC core/shell NPs, (b) PL spectra of β-NYGF:Yb,Er core UCNPs and β-NYGF:Yb,Er/β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb UC/DC core/shell NPs [Inset shows photograph of UC/DC core/shell NPs under (i) room light, (ii) 254 nm UV lamp (4 W), and (iii) 980 nm NIR diode laser (0.4 W).], and (c) energy level diagram showing UC and DC emission from UC/DC core/shell NPs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PL spectra of β-NYGF:Yb,Er/β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb UC/DC (dotted black line) and β-NaGdF4:Ce,Tb/β-NYGF:Yb,Er DC/UC (solid red line) core/shell NPs under (a) 254 nm UV light and (b) 980 nm NIR light. Inset shows magnified UC PL spectra in low intensity range.

Metrics